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The Cold War and post-WWII US Foreign Policy

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... 1951 Tension between MacArthur and Truman ensues A U.S. fighter plane used in the Korean War Ted Williams: U.S. fighter pilot in Korean War MacArthur ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War and post-WWII US Foreign Policy


1
The Cold War and post-WWII US Foreign Policy
2
The Cold War 1945-1991 An Ideological
Struggle
Soviet Eastern Bloc Nations Iron Curtain
US the Western Democracies
GOAL ? Containment of Communism the eventual
collapse of the Communist world.
GOAL ? spread world-wide Communism
  • METHODOLOGIES
  • Espionage KGB vs. CIA
  • Arms Race nuclear escalation
  • Competition for the minds and hearts of Third
    World peoples Communist govt. command economy
    vs. democratic govt. capitalist economy
  • Bi-Polarization of Europe NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

3
The United Nations
  • San Fran. Conf (4/12/45)
  • 50 nations form UN
  • 5 permanent members of Security Council (US, GB,
    France, China, USSR)
  • Purpose?

4
The Iron Curtain
  • Described forced communist govts in Eastern
    Europe (Churchill)
  • Resisted attempts to limit atomic energy
  • Americans see growing threat
  • USSR aimed for global communist takeover

5
The Truman Doctrine (1947)
  • US pledge support to countries fighting communism
  • Included sending aid to Greece, Iran and Turkey
    against communism
  • containment theory (George Kennan)
  • Led to Marshall Plan/NATO

Harry Truman
George Kennan
6
The Marshall Plan
  • George Marshall- Secretary of State
  • Provided money for European countries against
    communism (economic containment)
  • 5.3 million to Europe in 1949
  • 12 billion total

George Marshall
7
NATO (est. 1949)
  • US and Canada allied together with 10 western
    European nations (5 more added later)
  • Signed April 1949
  • an attack on one was an attack on all
  • Eisenhower- put in charge of NATO forces

8
The Warsaw Pact (1955-1991)
  • Organization of Central and Eastern European
    Communist states with USSR as leader
  • Established to counter the threat of NATO
  • Fought with NATO countries through proxy wars
    (ex. Korea and Vietnam)

9
National Defense Budget 1940-1964
10
The Korean War 1950-1953
  • Americas Forgotten War

11
Where in the world is Korea?
  • Located on a peninsula and surrounded by the
    Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan
  • Controlled by Japan after the Root-Takahara
    agreement (1908)
  • Split up between Russia (North) and the United
    States (South) after the Japanese defeat in WWII
  • The United States leaves the area in 1949 after
    free elections had been held in South Korea and
    Soviet puppet government established under Kim
    Il-Sung in North

12
North Korea (Communist)
South Korea (Democratic)
13
The start of the Korean War
  • By early 1950, Russian and American forces were
    completely out of Korea
  • June, 1950 North Korea crosses the 38th
    Parallel and attacks South Korea
  • South Korean forces are forced to retreat to the
    Pusan Perimeter

President Truman and General Douglas MacArthur
14
The United States Police Action
  • The United Nations immediately sends troops to
    defend South Korea (80American)
  • U.S. forces are headed by General Douglas
    MacArthur
  • September, 1950 U.S./South Korea forces have
    secured Pusan Perimeter

A U.S. soldier after spending 31 days at the front
15
The Inchon Invasion
  • September 1950 MacArthur launches a successful
    counteroffensive at Inchon (just west of Seoul)
  • Joint air/amphibious counter attack that turns
    the tide of the war

U.S. Marines storming the beaches at Inchon
The amphibious assault
16
Well Be Home By Christmas
  • North Korea pushed out of south after Inchon
    invasion
  • Debate Do we cross into North or stay?
  • The decision was made in November to cross (UN)

An American truck crosses the 38th parallel late
in 1950
17
China Gets Involved
  • MacArthur leads US forces into North Korea
  • U.S. troops approach the Yalu River on Chinese
    border in November
  • November, 1950 China sends hundreds of thousands
    of troops across the Yalu

Chinese troops cross the Yalu River towards Korea
18
The Massive Retreat
  • U.S. forces retreat back to the 38th parallel
  • Greatest retreat in U.S. military history
  • A status quo situation results by January, 1951
  • Tension between MacArthur and Truman ensues

A U.S. fighter plane used in the Korean War
Ted Williams U.S. fighter pilot in Korean War
19
MacArthur Relieved
  • MacArthur threatened to invade China and
    potentially use nuclear weapons
  • April, 1951 Truman relieved MacArthur of his
    duties-replaced by Matthew Ridgeway
  • Nation stunned

A stunned MacArthur reacts to his firing
20
The Stalemate (1951-1953)
  • The U.S. and N. Korea continued fighting along
    the 38th parallel
  • A truce is finally signed between the United
    States and North Korea with Eisenhower as
    president (July 27, 1953)
  • The situation was status quo
  • No land was gained for either country (38th
    separates North and South)
  • Korean War success or failure?

21
The Legacy
  • Over 40,000 American deaths in only 3 years
  • The Forgotten War compared with WWI, WWII and
    Vietnam
  • New American view of 3rd World, especially
    Southeast Asia (link to Vietnam)
  • First war featuring integrated military units
  • Massive increase in defense spending after war
  • Still a large US military presence on Korean
    peninsula today
  • Today NK an isolated, hostile, communist enemy
    of US

22
The Vietnam War
  • Americas Longest and Most Unpopular War
  • 1960-1975

23
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28
  • Facts about Vietnam
  • Colonized by the French up until WWII (Indochina)
  • Occupied by Japan during WWII
  • Vietnam gains independence from the French after
    Dienbienphu (1954)

North Vietnam
(Communist)
South Vietnam
(Democratic)
29
Ho Chi Minh Communist or Nationalist?
  • Supported Allied efforts during World War II by
    helping remove Japan from the area
  • Leader of Vietnamese resistance against the
    French
  • Leader of N. Vietnamese forces vs. S. Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh
30
Vietnam War Timeline
  • 1964-1968-U.S. military escalation
  • 1968-Tet Offensive
  • 1972-U.S. air attacks on Cambodia
  • 1973-U.S. troops pullout of Vietnam
  • 1975-SouthVietam collapses
  • 1954-Geneva Accords
  • 1959-N.Vietnam invades S. Vietnam
  • 1959-1963-Military advisors sent to Vietnam
  • 1964/1965-Gulf of Tonkin incident and Resolution

31
American Presidents involved in Vietnam
Kennedy continued to send advisors supported
military coup of Diems regime
Eisenhower 1st president to send advisors
author of domino theory
Johnson Escalated the war effort 500,000 troops
by 1968
Ford pulled out of Vietnam entirely
Nixon reduced troops but increased bombings into
North Vietnam
32
Advisors to these men
Clark Clifford-Secretary of Defense under Johnson
Robert McNamara-Secretary of Defense under
Kennedy and Johnson
  • McNamara was largely responsible for the
    escalation of American troops in Vietnam
  • Clifford replaced McNamara when he resigned in
    1968

33
Kennedy to Johnson (1960-1964)
  • November, 1963 President Diem of South Vietnam
    assassinated by military generals
  • Johnson replaces Kennedy and uses the Gulf of
    Tonkin Resolution to escalate the war effort

Kennedy
Diem
Johnson
34
USS Maddox fired upon
35
The Tet Offensive (1968)
  • North Vietnam and Viet-Cong take the war into the
    cities
  • Strategic victory for U.S. but a psychological
    loss otherwise (media)
  • Americans began to question why we were in Vietnam

36
Johnson to Nixon
  • 1968 Johnson announces that he will not accept
    the Democratic nomination for president
  • Nixon had his own secret plan for Vietnam
  • This plan called for a reduction in troops and
    escalation of bombing into North Vietnam,
    Cambodia, and Laos

LBJ-March, 1968
Kent State shootings following the protest of
Nixons raid into Cambodia
37
Nixon to Ford (1968-1975)
  • Nixons Vietnamization heavily criticized by
    the American public
  • War extended into North Vietnam, Cambodia, and
    Laos but reduced the amount of troops
  • By 1973, U.S. troop withdrawal begins in Vietnam
  • April, 1975 the U.S. leaves Vietnam with the
    fall of Saigon (to communists)

38
The Fall of Saigon (1975)
Members of the U.S. Embassy load up on a chopper
Chopper leaving the roof of U.S. Embassy
South Vietnamese citizens storm the U.S. embassy
39
Legacy of Vietnam War
  • Americans lost their sense of invincibility in
    military affairs
  • The American public developed a sense of distrust
    with the government-directly impacts the events
    surrounding the Watergate scandal and future
    scandals
  • The American government again failed to make a
    distinction between nationalism and communism
  • Showed power of protest movement
  • Divided generations (young vs old)

40
Vietnams Legacy (cont)
  • Veterans treated poorly, seriously affected by
    PTSD, Agent Orange exposure
  • Approximately 60,000 Americans perished
  • Americans are faced with shame of defeat in war
  • Massive bombing campaigns decimated Vietnamese
  • Approx. 2-4 million total Vietnamese dead

41
Images of Vietnam
42
Images (cont)
43
Images (cont)
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