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The Middle Colonies


The Middle Colonies The breadbasket colonies Overview THE MIDDLE COLONIES Society in the middle colonies was made up of settlers from many different countries ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies
  • The breadbasket colonies

  • Society in the middle colonies was made up of
    settlers from many different countries, many
    different religious groups, and was much more
    tolerant than in the New England Colonies.
  • Settlers from all over Europe came for new
    opportunity and greater freedoms.

  • Algonquian and Iroquoian Native Americans lived
    in the Pennsylvania region when Dutch explorers
    first visited in 1609. Henry Hudson sent word of
    the area after sailing into the Delaware Bay in
    search of a trade route to Asia.
  • In 1615, Cornelius Hendricksen reached what is
    now Philadelphia.

  • Sweden established the first permanent
    settlements near Philadelphia in 1643. Dutch
    troops conquered the area in 1655 until England
    conquered it in 1664.
  • In 1681, King Charles II granted the land to
    William Penn. He named the region Sylvania,
    meaning woods. Penn was added later by the
    King in honor of Williams father.

  • William Penn, a Quaker, desired religious freedom
    and self-government for all who settled in
  • Shortly after arriving, Penn signed treaties with
    the Native Americans and paid them for the land
    he was given by the King of England
  • In 1682, he founded the city of Philadelphia.
    Penn returned to England in 1684.
  • Several conflicts arose in his absence, and many
    changes resulted in Pennsylvanias government.

  • In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed
    their initial success to William Penn.
  • Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned
    smoothly and grew rapidly. By 1685 its population
    was almost 9,000.
  • The heart of the colony was Philadelphia, a city
    soon to be known for its broad, tree-shaded
    streets, substantial brick and stone houses, and
    busy docks.

  • Although the Quakers dominated in Philadelphia,
    elsewhere in Pennsylvania other groups were well
    represented. Germans became the colony's most
    skillful farmers and cottage industries such as
    weaving, shoemaking, cabinetmaking and other
    crafts sprung up everywhere.
  • Pennsylvania was also home to the Scots-Irish,
    who settled in the colony in the early 1700s.
    They hated the English and were suspicious of all
    government. The Scots-Irish tended to settle in
    the backcountry where the government had less
    control. They cleared the land and lived by
    hunting and subsistence farming.

New York
  • As mixed as the people were in Pennsylvania, New
    York best illustrated the polyglot nature of
    America. By 1646 the population included Dutch,
    French, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, English,
    Scots, Irish, Germans, Poles, Bohemians,
    Portuguese and Italians -- the forerunners of
    millions to come.

  • The Dutch continued to exercise an important
    social and economic influence on the New York
    region long after the fall of New Netherland to
    the English.
  • Their sharp-stepped, gable roofs became a
    permanent part of the city's architecture, and
    their prosperous merchants gave Manhattan much of
    its original bustling, commercial atmosphere.

  • For more than three centuries England and Holland
    (the Dutch) had been the closest of friends but
    now, the power of Spain was crushed, and the
    Dutch, no longer having anything to fear from
    Spain decided to try and become a Naval power.
    This upset England who were already upset that
    the Dutch traded with the English colonies
  • Their ships carried great quantities of goods
    such as Virginia tobacco to Holland, and thus at
    least 10,000 a year was lost in taxes to the
    English government.

  • The English Parliament passed The first
    Navigation Act (Law) in 1651 which would stop
    Dutch ships from trading goods. The Dutch traders
    ignored the law and continued as before.
  • The fact that Dutch traders were essentially
    stealing English tax dollars and that New
    Netherlands split the English colonies in two led
    the English to decide to conquer the Dutch
  • The English claimed New Netherland and Charles II
    gave the entire country to his brother James,
    Duke of York, ignoring the claims of the Dutch
    colony. A small English fleet and about five
    hundred of the king's veteran troops were joined
    by several hundred of the militia of Connecticut
    and Long Island. They all sailed for the mouth of
    the Hudson where New Amsterdam and Manhattan lie.

  • Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch colonial Governor had
    heard of the fleet's arrival at Boston, but
    believed the King was cracking down on the
    Puritans in New England. Stuyvesant had been away
    stopping an Indian uprising when he heard the
    fleet was heading for New Amsterdam. He arrived
    at New Amsterdam only one day before the English
    fleet came into view.
  • Nicolls, the Fleet Captain demanded the surrender
    of the fort and Stuyvesant refused. He fumed and
    fretted and swore and stamped his wooden leg.
  • He tore to bits a polite letter sent him by
    Nicolls. He mustered his meager forces for
    defense but the people were not with him.

  • They were tired of his tyrannical control where
    they had no say in the government and tired of
    enriching the colonial company at their own
    expense, and the choleric old governor had to
    yield. The fort was surrendered (1664) without
    bloodshed and New Amsterdam became New York
    (named after the Duke of York) and all of New
    Netherlands was under English control.

New Jersey
  • In 1609, Henry Hudson claimed New Jersey and New
    York for the Dutch. By 1630, Dutch settlement of
    New Jersey began along the Hudson River but
    because of Indian attacks, the first permanent
    town, Bergen, wasnt established until 1660.
    Swedish fur traders began settling southern New
    Jersey in 1638, but were quickly forced out of
    the area by the Dutch.
  • England gained control of New Jersey in 1664
    after taking New York with soldiers from the
    English colonies along the coast.
  • Many settlers arrived looking for cheap land and
    political and religious freedom. The colony was
    later divided into West and East Jersey. After
    land disputes caused rioting in the 1690s,
    England again united the two colonies into one

  • Two groups of Native Americans lived in the
    Delaware region when European explorers first
    visited the area. The Lenape and the Nanticoke.
  • In 1610, an English ship sailed into the Delaware
    Bay from the colony of Virginia. Captain Samuel
    Argall named the bay after Virginias governor,
    Lord De La Warr. The bay, river, and land
    surrounding the region became known as Delaware.

  • One year earlier, Henry Hudson had entered the
    Delaware Bay for a Dutch company. The Dutch
    tried to establish a settlement in 1631, but
    Indians killed the settlers and destroyed the
  • Sweden also made claims to Delaware. In 1638,
    colonists arrived and established Fort Christina,
    the first permanent settlement in the region.
    Sweden also claimed land from New Jersey and
    Pennsylvania and named the entire colony New
    Sweden. The Dutch captured New Sweden in 1655.

  • When England captured New Netherland Delaware
    became part of the colony of New York. In 1681,
    William Penn was granted land that included
    Pennsylvania and Delaware. Delaware then became
    known as the Three Lower Counties, because of its
    position down the Delaware River from
    Pennsylvania. As the population in
    Pennsylvanias counties grew the Three Lower
    Counties had less votes in government. As a
    result, in 1704 Delaware was given its own
    legislature, but continued with Pennsylvania
    governors until the Revolutionary War.
  • Delaware flourished under English rule. The
    lumber industry brought thousands to work in
    sawmills built along the Delaware River. By
    1760, nearly 35,000 people lived in the Delaware