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The Colonies

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The Colonies * * * Pilgrims/separatists persecuted in England and fled to Holland in 1608. They found it difficult to live in Holland- believed they were losing their ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Colonies


1
The Colonies
2
What do we know?
  • What problems did the new settlers face in the
    new world?
  • What colonist saved the colonists from
    starvation?
  • What crop saved the Virginia Company? Who
    introduced it?
  • What were the big farms called? Who worked on the
    farms?
  • 1st legislative body in English colonies?

3
Southern Colonies
  • Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia
  • Reasoneconomic opportunity
  • Maintained an allegiance to the Church of England
    and closer social ties to England then other
    colonies.

4
Maryland
  • Proprietary Colony Private land grant
  • Founded Lord Baltimore

5
Maryland
  • Purpose Safe place for Catholics (haven)
  • Significance Toleration Act
  • Protected religious freedom for all Christians

6
A Haven for Catholics
  • Maryland Toleration Act of 1649
  • Supported by the Catholics in MD.
  • Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS.
  • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of
    Jesus like Jews, atheists, etc..
  • In one way, it was less tolerant than before the
    law was passed!!

7
Virginia
  • Some of Virginias early settlers are called
    Cavaliers- English nobility who received large
    land grants from the king.
  • Poor English immigrants came seeking better lives
    as small farmers or artisans in the Shenandoah
    Valley.

8
Carolinas
  • Royal Colony King Controlled
  • Purpose Grow food for the West Indies
  • Major City Charleston (Charles Town)
  • South Carolina grows rich through trade
  • North Carolina lacks a good port
  • Outer Banks Sink Ships

9
Georgia
  • Last of the original colonies
  • Founded James Oglethorpe
  • Purpose
  • Buffer Colony Protect S.C. from Spanish Florida
  • Debtor Colony Place to start over

10
Life in the South
  • Political
  • Government run by the rich plantation owner
    (representative colonial legislatures)
  • White males who owned land allowed to vote
  • Virginias House of Burgesses

11
Life in the South
  • Economic Plantation (cash-crops) economy
  • Tobacco, Rice, Indigo
  • Few towns
  • Charleston Major city

12
Indentured Servitude
  • Headright System
  • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose
    passage they paid.
  • Indenture Contract
  • 5-7 years.
  • Promised freedom dues land,
  • Forbidden to marry.
  • 1610-1614 only 1 in 10 outlived their
    indentured contracts!

13
English Tobacco Label
  • First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619.
  • Their status was not clear ? perhaps slaves,
    perhaps indentured servants.
  • Slavery not that important until the end of the
    17c.

14
Slavery
  • Slaves replace indentured servants
  • Middle Passage Journey from Africa to America
  • Part of the Triangular Trade
  • Slave Codes Harsh laws against slaves
  • Slave Response
  • Suicide, vandalism, revolts

15
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16
Middle Colonies
  • Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware
  • Colonial Breadbasket
  • Rich Economy Farming Industry (shipbuilding)

17
Middle Colonies
  • Settled mainly by English, Dutch, and German
    speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and
    economic opportunity.
  • Cities like New York Philadelphia began to grow
    as seaports and commercial centers.

18
Middle Colonies
  • Pennsylvania Proprietary Colony
  • Founded By William Penn
  • Purpose Home for Quakers
  • Pacifist religious group
  • Philadelphia City of Brotherly Love

19
Middle Colonies religious toleration?
  • The middle colonies were home to multiple
    religious groups- Quakers in Pennsylvania,
    Huguenots Jews in NY, Presbyterians in NJ that
    generally believed in more religious tolerance.
  • Middle Colonies had a more flexible social
    structure and began to develop a middle class of
    skilled artisans, entrepreneurs, and small
    farmers.

20
New England
  • Northern area of English colonies.
  • Made up of people seeking religious freedom (sort
    of!!!)
  • Plymouth Bay Colony (PBC), Massachusetts Bay
    Colony (MBC), Rhode Island, Connecticut, New
    Hampshire

21
Massachusetts
Created for religious purposes
Two groups of settlers
Puritans
Pilgrims
22
Puritanism
  • Calvinism ? Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Predestination.
  • Good works could not save those predestined for
    hell.
  • No one could be certain of their spiritual
    status.
  • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of
    conversion.
  • Puritans
  • Want to totally reform purify the Church of
    England.
  • Grew impatient with the slow process of
    Protestant Reformation back in England.

23
Pilgrims
1620 Arrive _at_ Plymouth
William Bradford Pilgrim leader
Separatists Believed Church of England was
corrupt. Never to return to England.
24
Separatists
  • Separatist Beliefs
  • Puritans who believed only visible saints
    those who could demonstrate in front of their
    fellow Puritans their elect status should be
    admitted to church membership.
  • Because the Church of England enrolled all the
    kings subjects, Separatists felt they had to
    share churches with the damned.
  • Therefore, they believed in a total break from
    the Church of England.

25
Pilgrims
Mayflower Compact Legal document that
established democracy in Plymouth Bay
Colony Governor William Bradford
26
The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620
  • Written and signed before the Pilgrims
    disembarked from the ship.
  • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a
    crude govt. and submit to majority rule.
  • Signed by 41 adult males.
  • Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies
    to make laws in town meetings.

27
Puritans
Established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Non-Separatist Goal is to be an example for all
to follow and reform the church
28
Puritans
John Winthrop Puritan leader
Goal create a City on the hill
Covenant Community- Based on the Mayflower
Compact and Puritan religious beliefs.
29
Covenant Theology
  • Covenant of Grace
  • between Puritan communities and God.
  • Social Covenant
  • Between members of Puritan communities with each
    other.
  • Required mutual watchfulness.
  • No toleration of deviance or disorder.
  • No privacy.

30
Religious Freedom
Puritans did not allow other faiths in
Massachusetts
Religious Freedom
Dissenters People who opposed Puritan control
31
Dissenters
Roger Williams
Founder of Rhode Island.
Kicked out of Massachusetts for preaching
liberty of conscience
Church
Liberty of conscience separation of
State
32
Rhode Island
  • 1636 ? Roger Williams fled there.
  • Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI
  • Universal manhood suffrage ? later restricted by
    a property qualification.
  • Opposed to special privilege of any kind ?
    freedom of opportunity for all.
  • RI becomes known as the Sewer because it is
    seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for
    unbelievers and religious dissenters ? More
    liberal than any other colony!

33
Anne Hutchinson
Kicked out of MBC for disagreeing with ministers
Moved to Rhode Island
34
Connecticut
Founded by Puritans seeking greater freedoms and
land
Fundamental Orders 1st written Constitution in
colonies
35
Life in the North
New England Cod and God
Rocky soil and long winters Bad for
farming Practiced Direct Democracy at town
meetings (remember Athens, Greece)
36
New England Economy
Shipbuilding
Fishing Cod
Lumbering
Subsistence Farming you farm to sustain your
life
37
Life in the North
Religion dominated all aspects of life
All people must learn how to read the Bible.
38
Life in the North
Education Elementary schools required to be
built in all towns gt 50 families
Harvard College (1636) 1st college in America
39
Life in the North
As MBC grows religious faith begins to decline.
Salem Witch Trials (1692) An attempt to scare
people back to church by claiming Satan was
corrupting society.
40
Life in the North
Great Awakening A revival in the church
Brings passion and energy to church services.
Led by two men Jonathan Edwards and George
Whitefield Fire and Brimstone sermons
41
Life in the North
  • Effects of the Great Awakening
  • More people go to church
  • New churches created
  • Baptist
  • Methodist
  • New Colleges created
  • People question authority

42
Enlightenment
  • Challenges the authority of the church in science
    and philosophy while elevating the power of human
    reasoning.
  • Locke- natural rights (life, liberty, and
    property)
  • Montesquieu- 3 branches of government
  • Enlightened thinkers greatly influence our
    Founding Fathers on the road to revolution.

43
REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • What was the 1st English group to arrive in New
    England?
  • John Winthrop was the leader of this group of
    people? What kind of city did he hope to create?
  • What is the difference between a separatist a
    non-separatist?
  • How did the geography of New England affect the
    lives of the people there?
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