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Early Childhood: Cognitive Development

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Chapter 9 Early Childhood: Cognitive Development A preschooler s having imaginary playmates is a sign of loneliness or psychological problems. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Childhood: Cognitive Development


1
Chapter 9Early Childhood Cognitive Development
2
Early Childhood Cognitive Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • A preschoolers having imaginary playmates is a
    sign of loneliness or psychological problems.
  • Two-year-olds tend to assume that their parents
    are aware of everything that is happening to
    them, even when their parents are not present.

3
Early Childhood Cognitive Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • Because Mommy wants me to may be a perfectly
    good explanation for a 3-year-old.
  • One and 2-year olds are too young to remember the
    past.

4
Early Childhood Cognitive Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • Childrens levels of intelligence not just
    their knowledge are influenced by early
    learning experiences.
  • A highly academic preschool education provides
    children with advantages in school later on.

5
Early Childhood Cognitive Development Truth or
Fiction?
  • During her third year, a girl explained that she
    and her mother had finished singing a song by
    saying, We singed it all up.
  • Three-year-olds usually say Daddy goed away
    instead of Daddy went away because they do
    understand the rules of grammar.

6
Jean Piagets Preoperational Stage
7
How Do Children in the Preoperational Stage
Think and Behave?
  • Symbolic thought and play
  • Pretend play
  • 12-13 months familiar activities i.e. feed
    themselves
  • 15-20 months focus on others i.e. feed doll
  • 30 months others take active role i.e. doll
    feeds itself
  • Imaginary Friends
  • More common among first-born and only children

8
How Do We Characterize the Logic of the
Preoperational Child?
  • Lack of logical operations
  • No flexible or reversible mental operations
  • Egocentrism
  • Only view the world through their own perspective
  • Three-mountain test

9
Figure 9.1 The Three-Mountains Test
10
How Do We Characterize the Logic of the
Preoperational Child?
  • Causality
  • Influenced by egocentrism
  • Caused by will
  • Precausal thinking
  • Transductive reasoning
  • Animism
  • Artificialism
  • Confusion between mental and physical phenomena
  • Believe their thoughts reflect external reality
  • Believe dreams are true

11
What is Conservation?
  • Properties remain the same even if you change the
    shape or arrangement
  • Preoperational children fail to demonstrate
    conservation
  • Centration
  • Irreversibility

12
Figure 9.2 Conservation
13
Figure 9.3 Conservation of Number
14
What is Class Inclusion?
  • Including new objects/categories in broader
    mental classes
  • Requires child focus on more than one aspect of
    situation at once

15
Figure 9.4 Class Inclusion
16
Lessons in Observation Piagets Preoperational
Stage
  • Describe Jean Piagets preoperational stage of
    development.
  • How does the ability to use mental symbols to
    represent objects change the way that children
    interact in the world?
  • Describe the behaviors exhibited by the children
    in the video that illustrate representational or
    symbolic activity.

17
Lessons in Observation Piagets Preoperational
Stage
18
Lessons in Observation Piagets Preoperational
Stage
  • Using examples from the video, discuss Piagets
    concept of egocentrism.
  • Why are children in the preoperational stage more
    egocentric than older children, according to
    Piaget?

19
Lessons in Observation Piagets Preoperational
Stage
  • What is conservation?
  • Describe the conservation tasks shown in the
    video and discuss the performance of Olivia,
    Debra, Jacob, Christopher, and Jack.
  • Are their responses typical of children in the
    preoperational stage? Why or why not?

20
Lessons in Observation Piagets Preoperational
Stage
  • How do Olivia, Debra, Jacob, Christopher, and
    Jack respond when asked to explain why they
    thought the amount of liquid or play dough had
    changed or not changed?
  • How do these responses illustrate deficits in the
    reasoning abilities of preoperational children,
    as described by Piaget, including centration,
    irreversibility, perception-bound thought, and
    their focus on states rather than dynamic
    transformations?

21
Evaluation of Piaget
  • Piaget underestimated preschoolers abilities
  • Three-mountain test
  • Errors attributed to demands on child and
    language development
  • Causality
  • Logical understanding appears more sophisticated
  • Conservation
  • Approach may mislead child

22
Developing in a World of Diversity
  • Cognitive Development and Concepts of Ethnicity
    and Race

23
Factors in Cognitive Development
  • On Being in The Zone
  • (for Proximal Development)

24
What Are Some of the Factors That Influence
Cognitive Development in Early Childhood?
  • Scaffolding
  • Zone of Proximal Development
  • Sorting doll furniture into appropriate rooms
    (Freund, 1990)
  • Retell a story viewed on videotape
    (Clarke-Stewart Beck, 1999)
  • Recall of task completed in longitudinal study
    (Haden, et al., 2001)

25
The Effect of the Home Environment
  • Home Observation for the Measurement of the
    Environment
  • Observe parent-child interaction in the home
  • Predictor of IQ scores
  • Parental responsiveness, stimulation,
    independence
  • Connected with higher IQ and school achievement

26
Developing in a World of Diversity
  • Cultural Variation in the
  • Home Environment

27
The Effect of Early Childhood Education
  • Preschool enrichment programs for children of
    poverty
  • Designed to increase school readiness
  • Enhance cognitive development
  • Parental involvement
  • Provide health care and social services to
    children and families
  • Programs have shown benefits
  • Positive influence on IQ scores
  • Better graduation rates
  • Less likely to be delinquent, unemployed or on
    welfare

28
The Effect of Early Childhood Education
  • Preschool enrichment for middle class children
  • High parental academic expectations
  • Increased preschool academic skills (until
    kindergarten!)
  • Children less creative,
  • More anxious and
  • Think less positively about school

29
The Effect of Television on Cognitive Development
  • Contradictory evidence
  • Sesame Street most successful educational tv
    show
  • Regular viewing increased skill in numbers,
    letters, sorting, classification
  • Positive impact on vocabulary
  • Impulse control
  • Heavy tv viewing negatively effects impulse
    control
  • Exposure to educational tv may have positive
    effect
  • Commercials
  • Couch-Potato Effects

30
A Closer Look
  • Helping Children Use
  • Television Wisely

31
Theory of Mind
  • What Is A Mind?
  • How Does It Work?

32
What Are Childrens Ideas About How the Mind
Works?
  • Theory of Mind
  • Understanding of how the mind works
  • Preschool-aged children
  • Predict and explain behavior and emotion by
    mental states
  • Beginning to understand source of knowledge
  • Elementary ability to distinguish appearance from
    reality

33
Do Children Understand Where Their Knowledge
Comes From?
  • Ability to separate beliefs from another who has
    false knowledge of a situation.
  • Ability to deceive
  • Evident by age 4, sometimes even at age 3

34
Figure 9.5 False Beliefs
35
Is Seeing Believing? What Do Preoperational
Children Have To Say About That?
  • Appearance-reality distinction
  • Understanding difference between real and mental
    events
  • May appear in children as young as three
  • Limitations
  • Event or object may take more than one form in
    mind
  • Understanding changes in mental states
  • Understanding of relationship between model and
    represented object

36
Development of Memory
  • Creating Files and
  • Retrieving Them

37
What Sort of Memory Skills Do Children Possess
in Early Childhood?
  • Recognition
  • Indicate whether items has been seen before
  • Recall
  • Reproduce material without any cues
  • Preschool children
  • Recognize more than they recall

38
Figure 9.6 Recognition and Recall Memory
39
Competence of Memory in Early Childhood
  • Best for meaningful and familiar events
  • Details are often omitted
  • Unusual events have more detail
  • Scripts abstract, generalized accounts of
    repeated events
  • Formed after one experience
  • Become more elaborate with repetition
  • Autobiographical memory
  • Linked to development of language skills

40
What Factors Affect Memory in Early Childhood?
  • Types of Memory
  • Remember activities more than objects
  • Remember sequenced events better
  • Interest Level
  • Individual interest and motivation
  • Retrieval Cues
  • Younger children depend on retrieval cues from
    adults
  • Parental elaboration improves childs memory
  • Types of Measurement
  • Younger children are limited in measurement by
    use of verbal reports

41
How Do We Remember to Remember?
  • Strategies for remembering
  • Rehearsal, organizing, mentally grouping
  • Not used extensively until age 5
  • Concrete memory aids used by young children
  • Pointing, looking, touching

42
Language Development
  • Why Daddy Goed Away

43
What Language Developments Occur During Early
Childhood?
  • Development of Vocabulary
  • Fast-mapping
  • Quickly attach new word to appropriate concept
  • Whole-object assumption
  • Assume words refer to whole objects, not parts or
    characteristics
  • Contrast assumption
  • Assume objects have only one label

44
What Language Developments Occur During Early
Childhood?
  • Development of Grammar
  • Expand telegraphic speech
  • Include articles, conjunctions and possessive
    adjectives
  • Overregularization
  • Strict application of grammar rules
  • Represents advances in syntax

45
Figure 9.7 Wugs
46
What Language Developments Occur During Early
Childhood?
  • Development of Grammar
  • Questions
  • First questions are telegraphic with rising pitch
    at the end
  • Later incorporate why questions
  • Passive Sentences
  • Young children have difficulty understanding
    passive sentences
  • Do not use passive sentences
  • Pragmatics
  • Adjust speech to fit the social situation
  • Between 3- and 5-years, develop more pragmatic
    skills
  • Represents the ability to comprehend other
    perspectives

47
What Is The Relationship Between Language and
Cognition
  • Cognitive development precedes language
    development
  • Piaget understand concept then describe it
  • Vocabulary explosion (18-months) related to
    categorization
  • Language development precedes cognitive
    development
  • Create cognitive classes for objects labeled by
    words

48
Interactionist View Outer and Inner Speech
  • Lev Vygotsky
  • During first year vocalizations and thoughts are
    separate
  • During second year thought and language combine
  • Children discover objects have labels
  • Learning labels becomes more self-directed
  • Inner speech
  • Initially childrens thought are spoken aloud
  • Eventually language becomes internalized
  • Language functions as self-regulative
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