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Literary Genres

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Literary Genres Recognizing Different Types of Literature Source of information: Cullinan and Galda s Literature and the Child – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Literary Genres


1
Literary Genres
  • Recognizing Different Types of Literature
  • Source of information
  • Cullinan and Galdas Literature and the Child

2
What is a genre?
  • A category of literature defined by their shared
    characteristics. Within each genre, there are
    many sub-genres.

3
What are the genres?
  • 1. Picture book
  • 2. Traditional literature
  • Folk tales
  • Fairy tales
  • Mother Goose
  • Legends, myths, epics and fables
  • 3. Modern fantasy
  • Science fiction
  • Fractured fairy tales
  • 4. Poetry

4
Genres continued
  • 5. Realistic fiction
  • 6. Historical fiction
  • 7. Biography
  • 8. Non-fiction or informational

5
1 Picture Books
  • A book in which the picture is as important as
    the text.
  • Usually 32 pages but can be as many as 48
  • Annual award Caldecott Award is given to the
    best illustrator.
  • It includes picture books, illustrated
    storybooks, wordless storybooks, concept books,
    and informational books

6
Examples of picture books
  • Recommended reading
  • http//kids.nypl.org/reading/recommended2.cfm?List
    ID61

7
Picture Book Authors
  • Eric Carle
  • Barbara Cooney
  • Donald Crews
  • Ezra Jack Keats
  • Stephen Kellogg
  • Brian Pinkney
  • Maurice Sendak
  • Chris van Allsburg
  • David Wiesner

8
Are all picture books for young children?
9
Karen Hesse Wendy Watson, Illustrator
10
Baseball Saved Us Ken Mochizuki, Dom Lee,
Illustrator
11
Jumanji Chris Van Allsburg
12
David Wiesner
13
Zelinsky
14
2 Traditional Literature
  • This literature is born of oral tradition, and is
    passed orally from generation to generation.
  • It often has "retold by" or "adapted by" in front
    of the author, on the title page of the book.
  • It often starts with the phrase
  • "Once upon a time..." and often has a happy
    ending.

15
Folktales
  • Often explain something that happens in nature or
    give/explain a certain truth about life in a
    creative way.
  • Often stories of animals that act like humans and
    live in a world of wonder and magic.
  • Often numbers like three and seven are in many of
    the stories.

16
Why folktales?
  • Forerunners of television, radio, books,
    newspapers.
  • Parents used them to teach lessons to their
    children
  • Taught customs of villages and about the people
    who lived in them
  • Taught about people in their communities

17
Types of Folktales
  • Fairy tales
  • Best known
  • Most popular
  • Includes magic
  • Setting does not have a definite time or location

18
Cinderella
19
Snow White
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Jack and the Beanstalk
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Rapunzel SCETV-Streamline
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Old favorites
  • Rumplestiltskin
  • Frog Prince
  • Red Riding Hood
  • Sleeping Beauty
  • Beauty and the Beast
  • Hansel and Gretel

23
Types of Folktales
  • Noodlehead story
  • Story about a silly or stupid person who
    nevertheless often wins out in the end
  • Often nonsensical meant for fun

24
Noodlehead Stories
Foolish Men of Gotham Seven Foolish
Fishermen Foolish Jack
25
Types of Folktales
  • Pourquoi Story
  • Story that explains why something happens
  • Usually explains something in the natural world
  • Example how a particular plant or animal came to
    be

26
Why Mosquitos Buzz in Peoples Ears SCETV
Streamline
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Types of Folktales
  • Animal Tales
  • Sometimes called Beast Tales
  • Tales of animals which talk and act like human
    beings
  • Popular with young children

28
Little Red Hen SCETV Streamline
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Types of Folktales
  • Trickster Tale
  • A variety of the beast tale
  • Features a character who outsmarts everyone else
    in the story

30
Anansi, the Spider ManSCETV-Streamline
31
Types of Folktales
  • Realistic tales
  • All the elements of the story could happen,
    though they may be exaggerated or humorous
  • These tales are relatively few in number
  • They have their basis in an actual figure from
    history

32
Johnny Appleseed SCETV Streamline
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Types of Folktales
  • Cumulative Tale
  • These stories are added upon
  • The story is told up to a certain point and then
    begun again from near the beginning and told
    until a new segment is added.
  • Minimum plot, maximum repetition rhythm

34
Examples
  • The Gingerbread Man
  • I Know an Old Woman Who Swallowed a Fly
  • Bringing the Rain to Kapiti Plain
  • Old Woman an Her Pig
  • Johnny Cake
  • Teeny Tiny

35
Characteristics Elements of Folktales
  • Characters Main and minor
  • Characters are usually flat, representing one
    human characteristic such as wickedness, goodness
    or stupidity
  • Contrasting characters Good child/bad child or
    good child/mean stepmother
  • Animals are often main characters and can act
    like humans
  • Setting - When/Where story happens
  • Time is quickly set in the introduction, usually
    with a phrase such as Once upon a time.
  • Place is generalized A palace, a hut, a forest

36
Elements continued
  • Plot
  • Exciting, swift-moving with lots of conflict and
    suspense
  • The introduction is very short giving the setting
    and introducing the characters in a few words and
    then starts right into the action
  • Must be logical within its setting even though it
    may have magic or magical characters
  • Swift and satisfying conclusion
  • Cycle of three recurrences (Goldilocks, Three
    Little Pigs, etc.)

37
Elements continued
  • Style
  • Often include rhyme and repetition
  • Lot of dialogue
  • Plenty of imagery
  • Theme or what the story is about
  • Satisfy our sense of justice and morality because
    good is usually rewarded and evil is punished
  • Help us laugh at ourselves

38
Elements continued
  • Motif
  • Smallest part of a story which persists in the
    oral tradition
  • Types of motifs
  • Characters A wicked stepmother, an evil witch, a
    stupid boy, a handsome prince, a woodcutter, a
    donkey, a giant
  • Places Forest, ballroom in a palace, a hut in a
    forest, a river
  • Objects Glass slipper, a magical tablecloth,
    golden ball, a rose
  • Actions or events Journey, palace ball, tricking
    an opponent, answering a riddle

39
Modern Authors
  • Paul Goble
  • Steven Kellogg
  • Gail Carson Levine
  • James Marshall, 
  • Martin Rafe,
  • Jon Scieszka, 
  • Jane Yolen,
  • Paul Zelinsky

40
Fairy Tales
  • Simple narratives dealing with supernatural being
    such as fairies, magicians, ogres and dragons.
  • What sets them apart from other folktales is the
    magic. (wee people, fairy godmothers, and other
    magical characters make things happen)

41
Example
  • The Talking Egg

42
Who is Mother Goose?
  • The term has been traced to Loret's 1650 La Muse
    Historique in which appeared the line, Comme un
    conte de la Mere Oye ("Like a Mother Goose
    story").
  • In 1697 Charles Perrault used the phrase in a
    published collection of eight fairy tales which
    included "The Sleeping Beauty," "Little Red
    Riding Hood," "Cinderella," "Bluebeard," and
    others. Although the book was titled, (translated
    from French) Histories and Tales of Long Ago,
    with Morals, the frontispiece showed an old woman
    spinning and telling stories, with a placard on
    the page which bore the words Contes de la Mere
    l'Oye (Tales of My Mother the Goose).

43
Mother Goose
44
Legends, Myths, Epics and Fables
  • A fable is a brief tale that presents a clear and
    unambiguous moral. The moral of the story is
    explicitly stated. Slow and steady wins the
    race.
  • Morals are taught by allegory. Animals or
    inanimate objects take on human traits.
  • Origin from Greece and India (Panchatantra
    Stories of the Buddhas previous lives)

45
Fables continued
  • Mythology Myths express the belief of ancient
    cultures and portray visions of destiny.
  • Tales of love, carnage, revenge, and deep
    emotions.
  • Transmit ancient values, symbols, customs, art,
    law, and language.

46
Legends/Epics
  • Epics or hero tales focus on courageous deeds of
    mortals against each other or against gods and
    monsters.
  • Contest of good versus evil

47
Examples of Epics
  • King Arthur
  • Robin Hood
  • Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Le Morte dArthur

48
Examples
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3 Modern Fantasy Science Fiction
  • Definition Imaginative narratives that explore
    alternate realities.
  • Science fiction Explores scientific
    possibilities asking if this, then what?
  • Difference Science fiction extrapolates from
    scientific principles
  • Common themes from folktales morality,
    traditions, exploration of things we do not fully
    understand.

51
Authors Science Fiction/Fantasy
  • Susan Cooper
  • Lloyd Alexander
  • Natalie Babbitt
  • Lois Lowry
  • Isaac Asimov
  • Nancy Farmer
  • Madeleine LEngle
  • Anne McCaffrey
  • C.S. Lewis

52
Types of Fantasy
  • Animal
  • Charlottes Web
  • Wind in the Willow
  • Watership Down
  • Peter Rabbit
  • Winnie the Pooh
  • Poppy
  • Redwall

53
Types of fantasy
  • Miniature worlds, time slips, unreal worlds, and
    magic
  • Sylvester and the Magic Pebble
  • Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone
  • The Borrowers
  • Behind the Attic Wall
  • James and the Giant Peach
  • Jumanji

54
Types of fantasy continued
  • Quest stories search for an inner enemy rather
    than an outer enemy.
  • Inner strength is needed to meet the challenges
    endured.
  • Overcoming obstacles vanquishes evil

55
Types of Science Fiction
  • Mind control. Telepathy. ESP. Communication
    across time and space
  • Life in the future
  • Survival

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4 Poetry
  • Poems make us smile
  • Poems create images
  • Poems express feelings
  • Poems stir emotions
  • Poems promote school learning

64
Variety of forms
  • Narrative Casey at Bat, the Pied Piper,
    Hiawatha, Paul Reveres Ride
  • Lyric poetry statement of mood or feeling
  • All the Pretty Little Horses
  • Hush-a-bye
  • Dont you cry
  • Go to sleep
  • My little baby
  • When you wake
  • You shall have
  • All the pretty little horses

65
Variety of poems continued
  • Free verse unrhymed with irregular patterns
  • Cinquain 5 unrhymed lines in patterns of 2, 4,
    6, 8 and 2 syllables
  • Sniffles and Sneezing
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing a lot
  • Missing school, missing friends
  • I would feel bad at home a lot
  • Feel bored
  • Haiku 3 lines and 17 syllables
  • Pigeons strut the rails
  • Of the city reservoir
  • Doing a rain dance.
  • Jane Yolen

66
Varieties of poetry continued
  • Concrete uses the appearance of words on a page
    to suggest or illustrate the poems meaning

67
Varieties of poems continued
  • Ballads a story told in verse and often sung
  • Limerick 5 lines with a rhyme scheme of
    a-a-b-b-a
  • There was an old man of Peru (a)
  • who dreamed he was eating his shoe (a)
  • He woke in the night (b)
  • in a terrible fright (b)
  • And found it was perfectly true. (a)

68
Poets NCTE Award Winners
  • David McCord
  • Aileen Fisher
  • Karla Kuskin
  • Myra Cohn Livington
  • Eve Merriam
  • John Ciardi
  • Lilian Moore
  • Arnold Adolf
  • Valerie Worth
  • Barbara Ebsen
  • Eloise Greenfield
  • X.J. Kennedy

69
5 Realistic Fiction
  • Realistic fiction has a strong feeling of
    actuality
  • Characters and events could have happened
  • Deals with all dimensions of the real world
    humorous, sensitive, thoughtful, joyful, and
    painful
  • Controversy often surrounds this genre when
    dealing with drugs, alcoholism, divorce,
    abortion, death, homelessness, child abuse,
    teenage relationships

70
5 Realistic Fiction
  • One of the easiest genres to define
  • Could the people, events, and story have actually
    occurred?

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What makes good realistic fiction?
  • Setting has to be realistic, believable.
  • Characters have to reflect human beings we
    know, credible, authenic, and not stereotypic,
    and show change and development in the story.
  • Plot Conflict is probable in this world today
    and matters to the reader.
  • Theme Important issue of todays society
  • Style Todays language forms, slang, and
    reflects present cultures.

72
Authors
  • Phyllis Reynolds Naylor
  • Matt Christopher
  • Judy Blume
  • Louis Sachar
  • Richard Peck
  • Gary Paulsen
  • Walter Dean Myers
  • Laurie Halse Anderson
  • Cynthia Rylant
  • Sharon Creech
  • Avi
  • Kate DiCamillo
  • Many, many more

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Newbery Medal
  • The first English publisher and store owner of
    childrens literature in London, 1744.
  • Award established in 1922 and has been given
    annually by the ALA.
  • Award is for the most distinguished contribution
    to literature for children published in the USA
    during the year.

82
6 Historical Fiction
  • Historical fiction tells the story of history it
    consists of stories grounded in facts of our
    past.
  • It differs from nonfiction in that it does not
    only presents facts or re-creates a time and
    place, but also weaves the facts into a fictional
    story.
  • Some books that are now classified as historical
    fiction began as contemporary realism. (Little
    Women)
  • Real events and real people may be woven into the
    story. (Across Five Aprils).

83
Authors
  • Scott ODell
  • Christopher Paul Curtis
  • Mildred D. Taylor
  • Katherine Paterson
  • Karen Cushman
  • Karen Hesse
  • Paul Fleischman
  • Ann Rinaldi
  • Gary Paulsen
  • Patricia MacLachlan
  • Walter Dean Meyers

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Scot ODell Award
  • Award to historical fiction writer
  • Established in 1982
  • Goes to US writer for a meritorious book
    published the preceding year

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7 Biography
  • A biography tells the story of a persons life
    and achievements an autobiography recreates the
    story of the authors own life.
  • Some are chronological some are episodic and
    highlight only a certain period of a persons
    life.
  • Collective biographies focus on several
    individuals with commonalities.

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Authors
  • Russell Freedman
  • Jean Fritz
  • David Adler
  • Virginia Hamilton
  • Patricia McKissack
  • Kathleen Krull

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8 Non-Fiction
  • Books of information and fact.
  • Fiction and nonfiction may both tell a story and
    both may include fact. In nonfiction, the
    emphasis is on facts and concepts.

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Awards for Nonfiction
  • Orbis Pictus Award based on accuracy,
    organization, design and style
  • Sibert Award Newer award by the ALA in 2001
  • Boston Globe-Horn Book Award

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