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Title:

Hazards Associated With Flying at Night

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... Night Vision Night vision Two blind spots Lack of colour vision Reduced acuity Reduced depth perception Night myopia Visual hypoxia ... Use airport aids to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hazards Associated With Flying at Night


1
Hazards Associated With Flying at Night
  • Presented by
  • Name
  • Transport Canada, System Safety

2
Main Causes of Night Accidents
  • VFR-into-IMC
  • CFIT

3
CARs
  • CAR 602.115 three mile visibility for
  • night VFR
  • CAR 703.27 prohibits en route night VFR at less
    than 1000 ft above the highest obstacle along
    specific routes

4
The Eye
5
Factors that Affect our Night Vision
  • Night vision
  • Two blind spots
  • Lack of colour vision
  • Reduced acuity
  • Reduced depth perception
  • Night myopia
  • Visual hypoxia
  • Night blindness
  • Effects of aging
  • Carbon monoxide, alcohol, drugs, fatigue, smoking

6
Night Vision
  • Process requires about 30 min
  • Rods become adjusted to darkness
  • Off-centre viewing important during night flights
  • Smoking, carbon monoxide, hypoxia, certain drugs
    adversly affect night vision
  • Avoid bright lights to preserve night vision
  • Red light preserves night vision but severley
    distorts colours

7
Two Blind Spots
  • Physiological blind spot
  • Central blind Spot
  • Use an off-centre scanning technique

8
Lack of Colour Vision
  • Rod vision is unable to discriminate colours

9
Reduced Acuity
  • Central vision blindness at night
  • High rod-to-optic nerve fiber ratio reduces acuity

10
Reduced Depth Perception
  • Rod vision and pupil dilation reduces depth
    perception

11
Night Myopia
  • Shortsightedness occurs during dark focus
  • Periodically change focus distance

12
Visual Hypoxia
  • The retina of the eye is more sensitive to
    hypoxia than any part of our body
  • One of the first symptoms of hypoxia is a
    decrease in night vision
  • Effects most noticeable starting at 5000 above
    ground level to which you are acclimated
  • Smokers are much more susceptible to hypoxia due
    to the build-up of carbon monoxide in their blood

13
Night Blindness
  • Functionally blind due to pigment deficiency in
    rods
  • Night blindness induced within 60 days on diet
    lacking vitamin A

14
Effects of Aging
  • Pupil size decreases
  • Range of eye focus is reduced
  • Visual acuity is reduced
  • Colour discrimination becomes more difficult
  • It takes longer to process visual information in
    general
  • Sensitivity to glare increases
  • Takes longer to read under dim light conditions

15
Night Illusions Limitations
  • Illusions
  • Autokinesis (objects appear to shift)
  • False reference (stars or lights near horizon)
  • Venus and sirius (false aircraft)
  • Night myopia (dilation, inability to focus)
  • Somatogravic (acceleration with pitch)
  • Limitations
  • Night blind spot (rods cones, stars, etc)
  • Light to dark adaptation (2 hours)

16
Focused Scan Problems Night
  • Night blind spot (A.I.P. AIR 3.7)
  • centre portion of eye is blind at night
  • Night Scan
  • look 10-150 away from what you try to see
  • night vision is affected by altitude
  • drugs, alcohol, smoking and fatigue adversely
    affect night and day vision

17
Pre-Flight Planning
  • Route Study
  • Weather Conditions
  • Equipment
  • Alternate Plan

18
Ground Operations
  • Taxi speed illusion
  • Geographic disorientation
  • Risk of collision

19
Take off and Climb
  • Lining up
  • Take off into the black-hole
  • Somatogravic illusion

20
Cruise
  • Ability to detect and monitor weather
  • Terrain detection
  • Geographic disoriention

21
VMC into IMC Conditions
  • 178 Seconds

22
Approach and Landing
  • Runway detection
  • Black-hole approach
  • Effects of runway slope
  • Runway dimensions
  • Atmospheric conditions
  • Runway lighting

23
Black-hole Diagram
Arc Radius
3 degree glidescope
Arc of Constant Visual Angle
24
Be alert for the black-hole illusion if you
observe these conditions
  • An airport that is on the near side of a brightly
    lit city with few or no terrain features or
    lights between you and the airport
  • An airport that is on the coast or lake shore
  • An airport in a very sparsely settled areas

25
Fatigue Induces Human Error
26
Preventative Measures
  • Recognize normal human visual limitations
  • involved know what they are and circumstances
    they are most likely to occur
  • Learn which airports are conducive to visual
    illusions at night and use the Canada Flight
    Supplement (CFS) for more information and
    restrictions during hours of darkness
  • Use flight instruments for approaches
    especially those that provide glide path
    information (i.e., ILS, DME readouts and
    altimeter)
  • Use airport aids to vision (i.e., VASIS, T-VASIS)

27
More Preventative Measures
  • Avoid visual long straight-in approaches (overfly
    airport if necessary)
  • For geographic disorientation use radio
    navigation and GPS if fitted
  • Pay attention to alert devices (radio, altimeter,
    GPWS)
  • Double check your own expectations and
    perceptions
  • Ensure adequate sleep and nutrition
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