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Mrs. Mills

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Title: Mrs. Mills


1
A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe
  • Mrs. Mills

2
Postclassical Period in western Europe
  • The postclassical period began with the fall of
    the Roman Empire and lasted until the 15th
    century.
  • This period is known as the MIDDLE AGES in
    European history, or the medieval times.
  • Features of the Middle Ages
  • Gradual recovery from the shock of Romes
    collapse
  • Growing interaction with other societies
  • Center of postclassical west is central plains of
    Europe (France, southern and western Germany)

3
Question 1
  • When one says postclassical era what years are
    they referring to?
  • A) 1000 BCE to 500 BCE
  • B) 500 BCE to 500 CE
  • C) 500 CE to 1450 CE
  • D) 1000 CE to 1500 CE
  • E) 500 BCE- 1500 CE

4
Question 2
  • Why is the terminology the fall of Rome
    deceiving?
  • A) All of Rome fell at once but under different
    rulers and for a variety of reasons
  • B) Even as the Roman empire began to decline the
    eastern portion remained strong and essentially
    never fell
  • C) Even as the Roman empire began to decline, the
    western portion remained strong and essentially
    never fell
  • D) Justinian codified the laws that kept Rome
    from falling in the 6th century
  • E) The fall of Rome became religion and
    ultimately had nothing to do with a literal
    falling of the empire

5
Question 3
  • What empire did the eastern portion of Rome
    ultimately become, and what was the location of
    its capital?
  • A) Italian, Rome
  • B) Byzantine, Constantinople
  • C) Byzantine, Rome
  • D) Italian, Byzantium
  • E) Byzantine, France

6
Religion in western Europe
  • Christian missionary efforts led most western
    Europeans to convert from polytheistic faiths in
    the initial postclassical centuries.
  • Became a society with a mixture of religions
  • Beliefs in spirits and magic
  • Fervent Christianity
  • Religions coexisted

7
Stages of Postclassical development
  • Postclassical western Europe was hit hard by
    Roman collapse.
  • 550 CE-900, western Europe suffered from many
    problems such as
  • Italy divided politically
  • Spain, another key region, lay in the hands of
    the Muslims for the majority of the Middle Ages
  • Growing intellectual and economic life, but out
    of western mainstream
  • Frequent invasions prolonged the weaknesses of
    the west
  • Still connected to Roman heritage, and lagging
    behind the times

8
Question 4
  • How did the spread of Christianity affect
    polytheistic religions already existent in
    northern Europe?
  • A) All traces of the earlier religions were
    eradicated
  • B) Conversion produced a religious amalgam of
    Christianity and beliefs in magic and
    supernatural spirits
  • C) Many areas of Europe retained purely
    polytheistic religions
  • D) Christianity achieved few conversions, and
    most of western Europe retained polytheistic
    religions
  • E) In order to gain converts, Christianity
    allowed people to continue certain polytheistic
    rituals

9
Question 5
  • After the fall of Rome, where was the center of
    the post classical west?
  • A) In the former Roman colony of Spain
  • B) In Italy, particularly Rome
  • C) In the central plain of northern Europe
  • D) Greece
  • E) Constantinople

10
Manorial Systems
  • Between Romes fall and the 10th century,
    effective political organization was largely
    local.
  • Manorialism was the system of economic and
    political relations between the landlords and
    their peasant laborers.

11
Manorialism continued
  • Most people are serfs agricultural workers who
    lived on self sufficient agricultural estates
    called manors.
  • Serfs received some protection, including the
    administration of justice from the landlords but
    in return they must turn over a part of their
    goods and remain on the land.
  • Landlords also could provide military protection
    for the serfs as many were also military leaders.

12
Serfs
  • Serfs were not slaves they could not be bought
    or sold, and they retained essential ownership of
    their houses and lands as long as they kept up
    with their obligations.
  • Life was still difficult for serfs
  • Some escaped control of their landlords and
    became wanderers which added to the disorder of
    the early Middle Ages

13
Feudalism
  • A system of obligations that bound lords and
    their subjects in Europe during much of the
    Middle Ages. In theory, the king owned all or
    most of the land and gave it to his leading lords
    (nobles) in return for their loyalty and military
    service. The lords (nobles) in turn held land
    that peasants, including serfs, were allowed to
    farm in return for the peasants' labor and a
    portion of their produce.

14
Feudalism and Manor Life
A complex web of duties and obligations governed
relationships between people in the Middle Ages.
  • vassals lesser lords (knights) who are military
    elite and owe protection to the greater lords in
    the feudal system

15
Difference between Manorialism and Feudalism
  • In simple terms, feudalism is where lords gave
    land to vassals in exchange for protection
    (GOVERNMENT SYSTEM OF MIDDLE AGES) and
    manorialism is where lords gave land to serfs in
    exchange for food (ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF THE MIDDLE
    AGES)

16
Question 6
  • Manorialism was the system that
  • A) described economic and political relations
    between landlords and their peasant laborers
  • B) secular authorities utilized to name bishops
  • C) defined relationships between members of the
    military eilte
  • D) united the traditions of classical rationalism
    with medieval Christianity
  • E) provided a comfortable living for all involved

17
Question 7
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    manorial system is not true?
  • A) It was comprised of essentially self
    sufficient manors
  • B) It had originated in the Roman Empire
  • C) Its obligations bore heavily on serfs
  • D) Agricultural productivity was low
  • E) It was technologically sophisticated

18
Question 8
  • Vassals were
  • A) grants of land given to the lesser members of
    the military elite in return for military service
  • B) agricultural workers
  • C) members of the military elite who receive land
    in return for military service
  • D) greater lords within the military elite who
    commanded military bands
  • E) special oaths made between lesser and greater
    lords

19
The Church Both Political and Spiritual
  • After collapse in 6th century, Catholic church
    was the only solid example of organization in
    western Europe.
  • Hierarchy of Catholic church
  • Pope in Rome top authority
  • Bishops head of regional group of churches
  • Priest individual church authority
  • Papal- of or pertaining to the Pope or the
    Roman Catholic Church

20
The Political Sphere
  • The royal house of the Franks grew in strength
    during the 8th century
  • A new family comes to power and takes over
    monarchy Carolingians
  • Charles Martel part of Carolingian line who was
    responsible for a defeat of the Muslims in 732.
    Helped confine Muslims to Spain and preserve
    Christianity for Europe.

21
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22
Charlemagne
  • Charles the Great or Charlemagne
  • 800 CE- establishes a substantial empire in
    France and Germany
  • Achievements of Charlemagne
  • Restores church based education
  • Attracted Scholars from around Europe
  • Level of intellectual activity begins to increase

23
Short Lived
  • Charlemagne dies in 814, and empire does not long
    survive him
  • It is split between his three grandsons who do
    not prove to be successful rulers
  • Beginning around 10th century term Holy Roman
    Emperor is applied to rulers of Germany and
    northern Italy, however, it is a hollow term.
  • Local lords start to go their own way, and
    monarchies of individual states begin to arise.
    These states later become nations.

24
Question 9
  • The imperial title formerly held by the
    Carolingians was later claimed by
  • A) France
  • B) Italy
  • C) England
  • D) The Byzantine Empire
  • E) The Holy Roman Empire

25
Question 10
  • What Frankish monarch was able to establish a
    substantial empire in 800?
  • A) Clovis
  • B) Charles Martel
  • C) Pepin III
  • D) Charlemagne
  • E) Louis

26
New Economic and Urban Vigor
  • By 900- Western society begins to strengthen
  • New agricultural techniques from contacts with
    eastern Europe and Asia
  • Three field system
  • Even more military dominance for the landlords as
    they begin fighting on horseback
  • European nobilityland ownership and military
    power
  • Raids (Vikings) begin to taper off
  • Population growth that in turn encourages
    economic innovation to create jobs

27
Cultural changes in western Europe
  • Literacy spreads
  • Merchant activity and craft production expands
  • Schools form around cathedrals- train students
    for church careers
  • 11th century- enough interest to sustain first
    universities
  • Universities in Italy for medicine and law
  • Medieval art and architecture also becomes very
    popular spurred by this cultural movement

28
Prosperity promotes political change
  • From 6th century and collapse of Rome, there had
    been key political and military links within a
    system known as FEUDALISM.
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