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Environmental Science

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Environmental Science Designing and Conducting Research How do scientists go about solving a problem? What steps are followed in solving a problem? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science


1
Environmental Science
2
Designing and Conducting Research
3
How do scientists go about solving a problem?
  • What steps are followed in solving a problem?
  • Why is it important for scientists to follow
    these steps?

4
Learning Objectives
  • 1. Understand the importance of the scientific
    method.
  • 2. Explain the steps in conducting research.
  • 3. Explain the importance of controlled
    research.
  • 4. Explain the relationship between science and
    technology.

5
  • 5. Compare and contrast fact, law, hypothesis,
    and theory.
  • 6. Describe characteristics of living things.
  • 7. Explain how science and society interact.
  • 8. Explain and apply scientific methods to a
    variety of scientific topics.

6
Why is it important to study living things?
  • So we can

7
What do we need to know about living things?
8
I. Introduction
  • A. Biology the science of life
  • B. Organism a living thing

9
Video 1
Video 1
  • Click the image to play the video segment.

Its Alive!, Part 1
10
Video 2
Video 2
Its Alive!, Part 2
  • Click the image to play the video segment.

11
II. Characteristics of Organisms
  • 5. Interdependent
  • 6. Use Energy
  • 7. Highly Organized
  • 8. Respond to Stimuli
  • 9. Grow and Develop
  • A. Characteristics
  • 1. Composed of Cells
  • 2. Maintain Stability
  • 3. Reproduce
  • 4. Evolve

12
Composed of Cells
  • 1. Cell
  • a. the basic unit of life
  • 2. Unicellular
  • a. organism composed of one cell
  • 3. Multicellular
  • a. organism composed of more than one cell

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
13
  • 4. Cells are small, but highly organized
    (organelles)
  • 5. Differentiation
  • a. a process in which the cells of a
    multicellular individual become specialized
    during development (tissues, organs, systems)

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
14
  • 6. In biology structure is almost always related
    to function
  • a. morphology
  • 1) the structure of an organism or of any of
    its parts
  • b. anatomy
  • 1) internal morphology

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
15
C. Maintain Stability and Homeostasis
  • 1. Homeostasis
  • a. the stable internal conditions of a living
    thing
  • b. ie internal body
  • temperature

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
16
D. Reproduce (have a life span)
  • 1. Reproduction the production of new
    offspring
  • 2. Inheritance the traits that the offspring
    receives from its parents

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
17
  • 3. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  • a. hereditary information in the form of a
    large molecule
  • 4. Gene
  • a. a segment of DNA a unit of hereditary
    information

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
18
  • 5. Types of Reproduction/cell division
  • a. Sexual the production of offspring from
    the combination of genetic material from two
    parent organisms
  • b. Asexual the production of offspring that
    does not involve the union of gametes

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
19
E. Evolve
  • 1. Evolution
  • a. the theory that
  • species change
  • over time
  • 2. Evolution occurs
  • through Natural
  • Selection

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
20
  • a. Natural Selection
  • 1) the process by which organisms with
    favorable traits reproduce at higher rates than
    those without such variations
  • 3. Adaptation
  • a. traits that give an organism an advantage in
    an environment

21
F. Interdependent
  • 1. Ecology
  • a. the study of the relationships between
    organisms and their environment
  • 2. Ecosystems
  • a. all the biotic and abiotic components of an
    environment
  • b. biotic living things
  • c. abiotic non-living things

22
G. Use Energy
  • 1. Metabolism
  • a. the sum of all chemical
  • processes in living things
  • 2. necessary for
  • maintenance, growth,
  • and reproduction

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
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  • 3. Autotrophs
  • a. organisms that acquire energy by making
    their own food
  • b. plants
  • c. some unicellular organisms

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
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4. Heterotrophs a. organisms that gain energy
by eating or consuming other organisms b.
some unicellular organisms c. animals and fungi
Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
25
  • 5. Photosynthesis
  • a. the process where organisms (ie plants)
    capture the suns energy and use it to make food
  • 6. Cellular Respiration
  • a. the process where organisms turn food into
    energy

26
H. Highly Organized
  • 1. atom
  • 2. molecule
  • 3. organelle
  • 4. cell
  • 5. tissue
  • 6. organ
  • 7. organ system
  • 8. organism
  • 9. population
  • 10. community
  • 11. ecosystem
  • 12. biome
  • 13. biosphere

27
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28
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29
I. Respond to Stimuli/Environment
  • 1. Response
  • a. reaction to a stimulus
  • 2. Behavior
  • a. a complex set of responses

30
J. Grow and Develop
  • 1. Reproduction of cells
  • a. Mitosis
  • 2. Cell Enlargement

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
31
III. Science and Society
  • A. Ethics
  • 1. the study of what is right and wrong and of
    our moral choices
  • B. Bioethics
  • 1. the application of ethics to biological
    concerns

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
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IV. Science
  • A. science
  • 1. a system of knowledge based on facts and
    principles
  • 2. Types of Science
  • a. biological science
  • science of living things
  • 1) botany study of plants
  • 2) zoology study of animals
  • 3) ecology balance in nature
  • 4) medicine

33
  • b. physical science science of matter and
    energy
  • 1) physics forces and energy
  • 2) chemistry matter and its changes
  • c. earth science science of the earth
  • 1) geology rocks and minerals the science
    of the physical nature and history of the
    Earth
  • 2) meteorology atmosphere and weather
  • d. crossover ie. biochemistry, geophysics

34
  • B. Science and technology work together
  • 1. technology
  • a. the application of science

35
  • C. Scientific Theories Laws Facts -
    Hypothesis
  • 1. Fact in science, an observation that has
    been repeatedly confirmed
  • a. i.e. objects fall when dropped
  • b. i.e. humans have 46 chromosomes

36
  • 2. Hypothesis
  • a. a testable statement about the natural
    world that can be used to build more complex
    inferences and explanations
  • b. IFTHEN

37
  • 3. Law
  • a. a descriptive generalization about how some
    aspect of the natural world behaves under stated
    circumstances
  • b. i.e. the path of each planet around the
    sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus
    (Keplers First Law of Planetary Motion)

38
  • Newtons First Law An object at rest remains at
    rest and an object in motion maintains its
    velocity unless it experiences an unbalanced
    force.
  • Newtons Second Law The unbalanced force acting
    on an object equals the objects mass times its
    acceleration.
  • Newtons Third Law For every action force,
    there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

39
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • - mass cannot be created or destroyed
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • - energy cannot be created or destroyed

40
  • 4. Theory
  • a. a broad and comprehensive statement of what
    is believed to be true, supported by
    considerable experimental evidence resulting
    from many tests of related hypotheses
  • b. in everyday speech, people use the word
    theory when they are talking about a hunch or a
    guess
  • c. really they should use the word
    hypothesis

41
  • d. Examples of Scientific Theories
  • 1) atomic theory all matter is made of
    atoms
  • 2) cell theory all living things are
    composed of cells
  • 3) theory of gravitation all matter
    attracts other matter
  • 4) theory of plate tectonics Earths crust
    is made of plates which move over time

42
  • 5) Kinetic Theory explains the three states of
    matter
  • - all matter is made of atoms and molecules that
    act like tiny particles
  • - these tiny particles are always in motion.
    The higher the temperature, the faster the
    particles move
  • - at the same temperature, more massive
    particles move slower than less massive particles

43
  • 5. Theories and laws are not absolute as we
    do more experiments and learn more about the
    world around us, our explanations can change

44
V. Scientific Methods
  • A. Scientific Processes
  • 1. Observing
  • a. all scientific understanding of
  • the natural world is ultimately based on
    observations

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2002?
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  • b. the use of one or more the five senses to
    perceive objects or events
  • c. Qualitative data
  • 1) Quality
  • 2) Descriptive words/adjectives
  • d. Quantitative data
  • 1) quantity
  • 2) number (specific)

46
  • 2. Collecting Data
  • 1) the gathering and recording of specific
    information based on observations

47
  • 3. Measuring
  • a. observations are most useful when they
    involve quantitative data
  • b. measuring
  • 1) the process of determining the dimensions
    of an object, the of objects in a group, the
    duration of an event, or other characteristics
    in precise units

48
  • c. accuracy
  • 1. number that is close to the true value
  • d. precision
  • 1. number that is as exact as possible
  • (ie 47.452134 cm)

Not Accurate
Accurate
49
  • c. accuracy
  • 1. number that is close to the true value
  • d. precision
  • 1. number that is as exact as possible
  • (ie 47.452134 cm)

Precise Not Accurate
Precise Accurate
50
  • 4. Organizing Data
  • a. involves placing observations and
    measurements in some kind of logical order
    graph, chart, map

Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
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ineinfo.html
52
Major Air Pollutants
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ollutants.html
53
  • 5. Classifying
  • a. the process of grouping objects, organisms,
    or phenomena into an established organizational
    scheme, or developing new organizational schemes
  • b. usually organize living things into groups
    that share morphological traits

54
Classification of Ursus arctos
Coral snake
Abert squirrel
Sea star
Grizzly bear
Black bear
Giant panda
Red fox
KINGDOM Animalia
PHYLUM Chordata
CLASS Mammalia
ORDER Carnivora
FAMILY Ursidae
GENUS Ursus
SPECIES Ursus arctos
Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall.
2002?
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  • 6. Hypothesizing
  • a. the process of forming testable statements
    about observable phenomena
  • b. hypothesis testable statement
  • c. a statement is testable if evidence can be
    collected that either supports the hypothesis or
    refutes it

56
  • 7. Predicting
  • a. After making a hypothesis, make a
    prediction
  • b. Stating in advance the result that will be
    obtained from testing a hypothesis
  • c. Ifthen

57
  • 8. Experimenting
  • a. some hypotheses or predictions can be tested
    through observations in a natural setting while
    others cannot
  • b. Experimenting the process of testing a
    hypothesis or prediction by carrying out data
    gathering procedures under controlled conditions

58
  • c. controlled experiments
  • 1) based on a comparison of a control group or
    phase with an experimental group or phase

59
  • 2) independent variable
  • a) the manipulated variable the one that is
    different
  • 3) dependent variable
  • a) the thing that is different because of the
    independent variable usually what is being
    measured

60
  • 4) extraneous variables
  • a) factors which may impact the effect on the
    dependent variable

61
  • 9. Analyzing Data
  • a. the process of determining whether data are
    reliable and whether they support or refute a
    given prediction or hypothesis

62
  • b. validity
  • 1) do the results answer the questions that we
    are asking in the hypothesis
  • c. reliability
  • 1) will you get the same results if you do these
    procedures again

63
  • d. ways to analyze data
  • 1) using statistics
  • 2) interpreting graphs
  • 3) determining relationships between variables
  • 4) comparing the data to those obtained from
    other studies
  • 5) determining possible sources of experimental
    error

64
  • 10. Inferring
  • a. the process of drawing conclusions on the
    basis of facts or premises instead of direct
    perception
  • b. Facts might include data gathered during a
    field study or an experiment
  • c. Premises might include conclusions drawn
    from previous knowledge or from past experience
  • d. some inferences are testable and some are not

65
Observation and Inference
Statement
Observation Inference
Object A is round and orange.
Object A is a basketball.
Object C is round, black white
Object C is larger than Object B.
Object B is smooth.
Object B is a table-tennis ball.
Each object is used in a different sport.
66
  • 11. Modeling
  • a. constructing a representation of an object,
    a system, or a process that helps to show
    relationships between data
  • b. visual, verbal, mathematical, computer

67
  • 12. Communicating
  • a. sharing information
  • 1) to keep from repeating experiments
  • 2) Utilize resources more effectively
  • 3) To keep from repeating failed experiments
  • 4) Swap ideas
  • b. scientific journals, newspapers, magazine,
    conferences, internet, television news magazines

68
B. The Scientific Method of Investigation
  • 1. Identify the Problem
  • 2. Review Related Literature
  • 3. Develop a Hypothesis
  • 4. Design the Experiment
  • 5. Conduct the Experiment/Make Observations
  • 6. Draw Conclusions
  • 7. Communicate the Findings

69
  • Scientists do not always follow the above
    steps in order

70
  • VI. Measurement
  • A. International System of
  • Measurement
  • 1. the standard of measurement
  • used by scientists world-wide
  • 2. base units and multiples of the
  • base unit in powers of 10

71
Summary/Review
  • 1. Understand the importance of the scientific
    method.
  • 2. Explain the steps in conducting research in
    science.
  • 3. Explain the importance of controlled research.
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