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Everyone wants to be mindful, but nobody wants to practice:

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Mindfulness is a body based practice Mindfulness can be uncomfortable Mindfulness can be scary These can be described as things to do Embrace (fully ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Everyone wants to be mindful, but nobody wants to practice:


1
Working With Mindfulness
We know what it is, but do we really know what we
are doing?
James Hegarty PhD PgDipClinPsych FNZCCP
Image accessed from http//visionpsychology.com/t
opics-of-interest/mindfulness/
2
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3
A Proposed Plan
What is mindfulness? Why is our definition
or understanding of mindfulness important for
therapy? Identify some of the anomalies around
common approaches to mindfulness. Look at some
ways of using it in therapy? Hopefully have
conversations around some of these issues.
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What Did We Experience

6
Acceptance and Mindfulness Processes
7
What is Mindfulness?
paying attention in a particular way on
purpose, in the present moment, and
non-judgmentally
(Kabat-Zinn, 1994)
8
What is Mindfulness?
a receptive attention to and awareness of
present events and experience (Brown Ryan,
2003). awareness of present experience with
acceptance (Germer, Siegel, Fulton, 2005, p.
7).
9
What is Mindfulness?
the self-regulation of attention so that it is
maintained on immediate experience, thereby
allowing for increased recognition of mental
events in the present moment. and a
particular orientation toward ones experiences
in the present moment, an orientation that is
characterised by curiosity, openness, and
acceptance. (Bishop et al., 2004,)
10
What is Mindfulness?
The DBT conceptualization of mindfulness
includes a set of skills that are the
intentional process of observing, describing, and
participating in reality nonjudgmentally, in the
moment, and with effectiveness (Dimidjian
Linehan, 2003).
11
What is Mindfulness?
can best be understood as the process of
drawing novel distinctions (Langer and
Moldoveanu,2000). Which is seen as leading
to 1) a greater sensitivity to one's
environment, (2) more openness to new
information, (3) the creation of new categories
for structuring perception, (4) enhanced
awareness of multiple perspectives in problem
solving.
12
What is Mindfulness?
Sati - memory, presence, wakefulness with a
sense of attending, and sati of the present
moment Not strong concentration
13
What is Mindfulness?
Now go to the woods, to the root of a tree, or
to an empty hut, sit down in cross legged
position, and straighten your body. Establishing
present moment awareness right where you are,
breath in, simply aware, then breath out, simply
aware. Anapanasati suta
14
Breathing in long, know directly I am
breathing in long. Breathing out long, know
directly I am breathing out long. . . I breath
in, sensitive to the entrie body. I breath out
sensitive to the entire body.
What is Mindfulness?
15
What is Mindfulness?
the awareness that emerges through paying
attention on purpose, in the present moment, and
non-judgmentally to the unfolding of experience
moment by moment (Kabat-Zinn, 2003,) - An
operational definition defines an operation
which is practiced in meditative training. a
non-conceptual seeing into the nature of mind and
world (Kabat-Zinn, 2003)
16
What is Mindfulness?
paying attention in a particular way on
purpose, in the present moment, and
non-judgmentally
17
What is Mindfulness?
paying attention in a particular way on purpose,
in the present moment
18
What is Mindfulness?
paying attention in a particular way on
purpose
19
What is Mindfulness?
paying attention
20
What is Mindfulness?
Allowing the present to be as it
is. Glenn Wallis Roshi
21
What is Mindfulness?
Mindful attention requires allowing experience.
This requires trust trust in actual experience
before we make anything of it before beliefs,
thoughts, signs, explanations, justification, and
other constructions of our minds take form.
Stave Hagen
22
What is Mindfulness?

A conscious attending without any conceptual
overlay. Jim
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Derived stimulus relations
Dick
Spot
Jane
25
Derived stimulus relations and the transformation
of stimulus functions
Snake
Grass
Danger
26
No Money
Cant give kids money
Grief
Laughed at
No Job
Uncle Peter
Embarrassed
Shame
Pain
Limp
Agony
Hurt
Death
Cancer
Not again
Hospice
I cant Stand it
27
Acceptance and Mindfulness Processes
28
What do we do when we try to be mindful?
The first thing we do is we attend to what is
happening Then we learn to tolerate our
experience. Stick with it and tolerate what is
occurring. We allow our experience. Accept it,
fully embrace it. Investigate, or inquire (in a
non-conceptual way)
29
In Psychological Terms What Do We Do when we are
Mindful?

30
In Psychological Terms What Do We Do when we are
Mindful?
attend exposure response prevention Compare
this to our normal approach to exposure
31
Thinking of mindfulness as a method of exposure
what do we do?
develop the skill to attend develop the skill to
defuse from thoughts develop the skill to
tolerate unwanted emotions develop the skill to
become aware of and not respond to urges, or
impulses (that at first seem automatic)
32
In Psychological Terms What Do We Do when we are
Mindful?
With mindfulness practice we develop these basic
skills with generally neutral stimuli We build
the skills from the ground up - building skills
which we hope will generalize to various
situations once the skills are developed they
can then be used (hopefully) more effectively
with difficult material then these skills can be
used with a range of situations
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Acceptance and Mindfulness Processes
36
This is your life. It's all you've got. So
live your life to the fullest by looking it in
the eye, and do what you can to help others do
the same and so the chain continues Diane
Rizzetto (form Waking up to What You Do)
37


38

Extra Bonus Slides Not used in the presentation

39
Many conceptualizations of mindfulness confuse
the results of mindfulness practice with the
practice of mindfulness
Mindfulness as an operation An Activity
Versus The results of Mindfulness practice
40
Correlations Between Mindfulness Facets and
Related Constructs
. Mindfulness Facet
. Construct Observe Describe Actaware
Nonjudge Nonreact Predicted positive
correlations Openness to experience .42
.19 .02 .07
.18 Emotional intelligence .22 .60
.31 .37 .21 Self-compassi
on .14 .30 .40 .48
.53 Predicted negative correlations Alexit
hymia .08 .68 .42 .34
.19 Dissociation .27 .32
.62 .49 .12 Absent-mindedne
ss .16 .28 .61 .41
.15 Psychological symptoms .17
.27 .48 .50
.31 Neuroticism .07 .23 .44
.55 .35 Thought suppression
.16 .23 .36 .56
.22 Difficulties emotion regulation .02
.38 .40 .52
.36 Experiential avoidance .12 .23
.30 .49 .39 NOTE In
each row, the largest correlation is shown in
bold, and correlations that differ significantly
from the largest (p lt .01) are shown in italics.
p lt .001. Baer, R. A., et al.
(2006). p41.
41
Many conceptualizations of mindfulness confuse
the results of mindfulness practice with the
practice of mindfulness
Is describing mindfulness? Is being
non-judgemental mindfulness? Is observing
mindfulness Is beign equanmous part of
mindfulness? What is the realtionship of
compassion to mindfulness?
42
These are the sort of questions we need to be
aware of if using mindfulness as part of therapy
The language we use to describe mindfulness
determines how people will approach it
43
Why use mindfulness in therapy

It seems to be useful there is evidence
that it helps ? Anx, ? Dep, ? Emotional
reactivity, ? substance abuse, ? rumination,
helps improve relationships, useful in the
treatment of pain, may make better
therapists Theoretical (psychological) and
Biological mechanisms seem to exist
44

Kirk, U., Downar, J Montaqgue, R (2011)
Interoception drives increased rational
decision-making in meditators playing the
ultimatum game, frontiers in Neruoscience, 5,
Article 49.
45
Mindfulness starts with the body somatosensory
attention and top-down modulation of cortical
alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation
Kerr, C, Sacchet, M. D., Lazar, S. W., Moore, C.
L., Jones, S. R., (2013). Mindfulness starts
with the body somatosensory attention and
top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in
mindfulness meditation. Front. Hum. Neurosci.,
2013 doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00012
46
Various Therapies use Mindfulness in different
ways
MBSR / MBCT MiCBT DBT CEB ACT
47
Problems of Mindfulness in Clinical Practice
Widely used, poorly understood No agreed upon
definition No fully valid psychological measure
of mindfulness No agreement on the best method
of training mindfulness No agreed upon skill
set, or training for therapists
48
Why don't you want to practice?
49
Why Don't you want to Practice?
Mindfulness is a body based practice
Mindfulness can be uncomfortable Mindfulness
can be scary
50
ACT as the most Buddhistic of modern therapies.
It is not Buddhism, however it's core processes
map fairly clearly on the basic tenets of
Buddhism
These can be described as things to
do Embrace (fully know) suffering Let go of
grasping Experience stopping and create a path
live it
51
The three pillars of the hexaflex can be seen as
a) fully knowing craving/suffering and letting go
of craving b) mindful attention and stopping c)
identification of our own path and walking it
52
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