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Persuasive Strategies

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Persuasive Strategies Chapter 22 What kind of proposition? Proposition of fact Draw inferences from available date Is / is not Proposition of value Good or bad, right ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Persuasive Strategies


1
Persuasive Strategies
  • Chapter 22

2
Analyze your Persuasive Goals
  • Identify whether you need a proposition of fact,
    value, or of policy (more shortly)
  • Use stock issues to help you analyze your topic
  • Use a specific, planned organizational pattern

3
Adjust Your Content Based on Your Audience
Attitudes
  • Favorable audience
  • Neutral audience
  • Unfavorable audience

4
Favorable Audience
  • Use emotional appeals to intensify your
    listeners support
  • Seek a public commitment from listeners

5
Favorable Audience
  • Tell your audience exactly what actions they
    can take
  • Give your listeners ammunition to answer opposing
    points

6
Favorable Audience
  • Create an environment by letting your listeners
    fill in the blanks in your argument
  • Enthymeme -- an informally stated syllogism (a
    three-part deductive argument) with an unstated
    assumption that must be true...

7
Neutral Audience
  • Use plenty of attention factors
  • Make sure your point is clear and understandable

8
Neutral Audience
  • Present the most recent evidence and examples you
    can find
  • Send your message in multiple ways to engage the
    senses
  • Blend logic and emotional appeals

9
Unfavorable Audience
  • Be realistic about what change you ask listeners
    to make
  • Emphasize common ground
  • Be very thorough in your reasoning
  • Build your credibility by being fair and open
    minded

10
Organize Your Points for Optimal Persuasive Impact
  • Use Monroes Motivated Sequence to engage your
    audience

11
Organize Your Points for Optimal Persuasive Impact
  • Compare the advantages of two proposals as a way
    of organizing your speech
  • Place Your Strongest Points First or Last
  • Consider Dealing with Opposing Arguments

12
What kind of proposition?
  • Proposition of fact
  • Draw inferences from available date
  • Is / is not
  • Proposition of value
  • Good or bad, right or wrong
  • Proposition of policy
  • Most common, most complex
  • Advocates specific course of action
  • Should / should not

13
Types of claims (propositions)
  • When addressing whether something is true or not,
    or something will or wont happen--make a claim
    of fact
  • When addressing an issue that relies on
    individual judgment of right or wrong for its
    resolution, make a claim of value.
  • When proposing a specific outcome or solution to
    an issue, make a claim of policy.
  • Write your specific purpose to include one

14
Organizing Persuasive Messages
  • Problem-solution (p. 148)
  • Comparative Advantages (p. 324)
  • Refutation Pattern (p. 325)
  • Motivated Sequence
  • 1. Attention
  • 2. Need
  • 3. Satisfaction
  • 4. Visualization
  • 5. Action
  • You must use one of these -- list at top of
    outline

15
Example Problem-Solution
  • I. The Nature of the Problem
  • II. Reasons for the Problem
  • III. Unsatisfactory Solutions
  • IV. Proposed Solution

16
The Bottom Line
  • Read and peruse lots of sources
  • Use the best 10 or so sources -- Retrievable
    reminder
  • Make it clear to the audience where your
    information comes from
  • Define terms, identify people
  • Know the topic well and speak with conviction

17
What type evidence?
  • Examples, stories, testimony, facts, statistics
  • Distortion -- what is truth?
  • Historical vs. contemporary views
  • Sources of your evidence
  • Sources of visual aids
  • APA style -- accurate does matter

18
Ethics and appeals
  • Teleological vs. deontological
  • Emotional vs. rational appeals
  • Audience sensitivity
  • Life Cycle analysis
  • Demographics differences
  • Culture and subcultures

19
Persuasive Speech final topics... ...questions
20
Modes of Delivery
  • Chapter 23

21
Use of Four Steps to Prepare an Extemporaneous
Speech
  • Begin with a fully developed outline
  • Convert the full-sentence outline into a key word
    or key phrase outline
  • Word the speech
  • Convert your keyword outline to speakers notes

Sprague
Chapter 23
21
22
Remember Four Steps When Speaking Impromptu
  • Keep your composure
  • Select a theme
  • Select organizational framework
  • Whenever possible, plan your first and last
    sentence

Sprague
Chapter 23
22
23
Speaking from a Manuscript
  • When the time allotted is specific and inflexible
    / duplicate deliveries required
  • The wording is extremely critical
  • The style is extremely important

Sprague
Chapter 23
23
24
Prepare an Easily Readable Manuscript
  • Dont write it out by hand
  • Use capital and lowercase letters in a standard
    sentence format
  • Print on heavy paper
  • Make sure letters are dark and legible

Sprague
Chapter 23
24
25
Memorize Certain Manuscript Speeches
  • Memorize the structure first
  • Read the speech aloud several times, then
    paragraph by paragraph

Sprague
Chapter 23
25
26
Memorize Certain Manuscript Speeches
  • As you practice, visualize giving the speech
  • Do not go into a trance when delivering the
    speech
  • If you go blank, recall the structure of the
    speech

Sprague
Chapter 23
26
27
Practice Sessions
  • Chapter 24

28
Get Effective Feedback
  • Form a feedback support group
  • Get guidelines for feedback

Sprague
28
Chapter 24
29
Allow Time for Three Stages of Practice
  • Use early sessions to flesh out your outline
  • Use middle sessions to get feedback

Sprague
29
Chapter 24
30
Allow Time for Three Stages of Practice
  • Practice in front of others and ask for their
    feedback
  • Record your practice session and analyze your
    performance

Sprague
30
Chapter 24
31
Allow Time for Three Stages of Practice
  • Use final sessions for refinements
  • Make it as realistic as possible

Sprague
31
Chapter 24
32
Prepare Speech or Speakers Notes
  • Include key words, phrases and material that is
    to be cited directly
  • Prepare speech notes in a format that aids
    delivery
  • Preparing speech notes on note cards

Sprague
32
Chapter 24
33
Fit Your Speech into the Time Limit
  • If your speech is too long
  • Consider cutting out an entire point
  • Eliminate redundant evidence
  • Reduce narratives

Sprague
33
Chapter 24
34
Fit Your Speech into the Time Limit
  • If your speech is too long
  • Eliminate long stories
  • Use visuals or handouts
  • Speak simply
  • Is this too complex a topic?

Sprague
34
Chapter 24
35
Fit Your Speech into the Time Limit
  • If your speech is too short
  • Make sure all of your points are well developed
  • Use repetition
  • Is this a good enough topic?

Sprague
35
Chapter 24
36
Fit Your Speech into the Time Limit
  • If your speech is too short
  • Make sure you have proved all of your points
  • Do some more research
  • Change organizational pattern?

Sprague
36
Chapter 24
37
Avoid Common Practice Pitfalls
  • Doing mental rather than oral / physical
    practices
  • Avoid too many critics

Sprague
37
Chapter 24
38
Avoid Common Practice Pitfalls
  • Avoid over preparation
  • Avoid self-consciousness rather than audience
    consciousness

Sprague
38
Chapter 24
39
Adapting to the Speech Situation
  • Chapter 28

40
Prepare Adapt to Audience Reactions
  • If your audience seems bored or restless
  • If you are not getting the agreement from the
    audience you expected

Sprague
40
Chapter 28
41
Prepare Adapt to Audience Reactions
  • If your audience is less informed that you
    expected
  • If your audience is more informed than you
    expected

Sprague
41
Chapter 28
42
Prepare Adapt to Audience Reactions
  • If you audience is more heterogeneous than you
    expected

Sprague
42
Chapter 28
43
Take Steps to Prevent Distractions
  • Check for possible sources of distractions
  • Ignore low level distractions in your speech
  • Incorporate distractions into your speech

Sprague
43
Chapter 28
44
Take Steps to Prevent Distractions
  • Make necessary interruptions as short as possible
    and draw your listeners back into the speech

Sprague
44
Chapter 28
45
Responding to Hecklers
  • The verbal heckler
  • First-level tactics
  • Second-level tactics
  • The nonverbal heckler

Sprague
45
Chapter 28
46
Answering Questions
  • Chapter 29

47
Answering Questions
  • Come prepared
  • Invite answer audience questions
    straightforwardly

Sprague
47
Chapter 29
48
Manage Self- Indulgent Questioners
  • The person who wants to give a speech
  • The person who wants to have an extended dialogue
  • The person who wants to pick a fight

Sprague
48
Chapter 29
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