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GENERATOR HEAT RECOVERY CONSIDERATIONS IN ARCTIC VILLAGE APPLICATIONS LCDR William Fraser, P.E.

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Title: GENERATOR HEAT RECOVERY CONSIDERATIONS IN ARCTIC VILLAGE APPLICATIONS LCDR William Fraser, P.E.


1
GENERATOR HEAT RECOVERY CONSIDERATIONS IN ARCTIC
VILLAGE APPLICATIONS LCDR William Fraser, P.E.
2
Who We Are
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium Division
of Environmental Health Engineering June 2011
3
ANTHC
  • Non-profit, statewide organization
  • Provides a range of medical and community health
    services for more than 125,000 Alaska Natives.
  • Part of the Alaska Tribal Health System, which is
    owned and managed by the 229 federally recognized
    tribes in Alaska and by their respective regional
    health organizations.

4
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5
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6
ANTHC History
  • 1970s-1990s Regional health organizations in
    Alaska
  • Passage of P.L. 105-83 established ANTHC, the
    only THO established by statute
  • December 1997 ANTHC incorporated as non-profit
    501(c)(3)
  • June 1998 Initial contract with IHS.

7
ANTHC History
  • October 1998 Contract expanded to include
    Environmental Health Engineering
  • October 1998 ANTHC becomes a P.L. 93-638 Title
    III Self-Governance entity, signing the Alaska
    Tribal Health Compact

8
DEHE
  • Designs and Constructs Health and Sanitation
    Facilities
  • Provides operations support
  • Monitors develops standards for mitigating
    climate change impacts
  • Health impact studies
  • Environmental Grants training

9
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10
Water Sewer- Why?
11
What does this have to do with Heat Recovery?
  • Hospitalizations are 5 times higher in
    communities w/o piped water sewer.
  • Typical Fuel consumption for an Arctic WTP w/
    piped water sewer 8000-25,000 Gal / Year Fuel
    Oil
  • Fuel Prices between 6.00 8.00 / Gal. and
    rising.
  • Heat recovery can help make it affordable.

12
Extreme Climate
13
High Energy Use
14
HEAT RECOVERY FROM POWER PLANTS
  • 2 basic types
  • Jacket recovery
  • Stack recovery
  • Small Scale 50 KW to 3500 KW
  • Ideal for space heat and process heat
  • Considered a fuel saver, not a primary source of
    heat.

15
Kwigillingok Generator Facility
16
ADVANTAGES OF HEAT RECOVERY
  • Very green- reduces carbon footprint.
  • Can dramatically increase the economic viability
    of a community water system.
  • Adds additional redundancy to the building
    heating system.

17
DISADVANTAGES OF HEAT RECOVERY
  • Requires an agreement with the power utility,
    often with a charge for waste heat.
  • Usually increases the complexity of the heating
    system, especially in Washeterias.
  • Requires additional maintenance and coordination
    between power utility and building owner.

18
Other Solutions
19
SO YOU WANT TO BE GREEN
  • What do you need to know before you start?
  • Estimating available waste heat
  • Deciding on a heat recovery strategy
  • Selecting system components

20
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE YOU START?
  • Who owns the generators and what are their
    conditions?
  • Do you have a viable path between the waste heat
    source and the building?
  • What type of building are you serving?
  • Are there other buildings served by the waste
    heat?
  • What type of monitoring do you want?
  • Who is going to maintain it?

21
ESTIMATING AVAILABLE WASTE HEAT
QA
QGEN QPIPE - QO
QA Minimum available waste heat for your
building QGEN Average generator output during
peak heating season (typically much less than
rated capacity) in BTUs / Hour QPIPE Heat loss
from distribution piping during peak heating
season. Typically about 50-60 BTUH /
LF QO Heat used by other buildings on the waste
heat system (sometimes this is prioritized by
order of connection, so be careful)
22
HEAT RECOVERY RULES OF THUMB
  • Generator Output 1/3 Electricity, 1/3 Jacket
    heat, 1/3 Stack loss
  • 1300-2000 BTU / KW-Hr (Available Jacket Heat)
  • 100,000 BTU delivered heat 1 gallon of diesel
  • Annual Fuel Saved .3 x Power plant annual fuel
    used x 0.6
  • Pumping Energy Costs lt 10 Fuel Value

23
BREAK EVEN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
PPUMP x CE x 100
PPUMP x CE x 100
TBR

COIL x UAHX
900 x GPM x COIL
TBR Break even temperature difference between
Generator Heating Supply and Building Heating
Return (Deg F) PPUMP Pump power
(W) CE Electrical cost ( / kWh) COIL Fuel cost
( / Gallon) (80 efficiency assumed) UAHX Heat
exchanger U factor multiplied by HX area (BTU/ Hr
x Deg F) GPM Heat exchanger glycol flow rate
(GPM) (This formula only applies in special case
of counterflow HX with matching flow rates and
sufficient heating demand to use all of the waste
heat)
24
ESTIMATING WASTE HEAT DEMAND
QD
QBLG QPROC
QD Waste heat demand (typically does not include
dryers) QBLG Building envelope heat losses
(must engineer heating system for lower
temperatures than typical heating
systems) QPROC Heat required by process systems
(includes circulation loops, raw water heat
add, storage tanks, etc. This is where waste
heat really shines)
25
SELECTING A HEAT RECOVERY STRATEGY
  • Direct heat add to potable water
  • Double wall shell and tube, independent of boiler
    system (Kiana)
  • Small system with single boiler
  • Pipe heat exchanger in series with boiler
    (Chenega Bay)
  • Large system with multiple boilers
  • Pipe heat exchanger in primary / secondary
    arrangement (Kwigillingok)

26
GENERATOR HEAT RECOVERY ARRANGEMENT
27
RECOVERED HEAT INTO POTABLE WATER
28
HEAT EXCHANGER IN SERIES WITH BOILER
29
PRIMARY / SECONDARY HEAT EXCHANGER DIAGRAM
30
Minto Heat Recovery
31
WASTE HEAT CONTROLLER
  • Turns on at 8 Deg F difference
  • Turns off at 4 Deg F difference
  • Built in HOA switch.
  • Provides 1p/2t switch which can handle a 1 HP
    pump.

32
BTU METER
33
Plate / Frame Heat Exchanger
34
Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers
35
Shell Tube Heat Exchangers
36
Typical pumps
37
AMOT Valve
38
DESIGN COMMENTS
  • Use Brazed Plate or Plate / Frame heat exchangers
  • Provide controls to ensure heat is not
    transferred back to generator cooling system.
  • Provide controls to minimize electric power
    consumption
  • Provide BTU monitoring if being billed by local
    utility
  • Provide pressure relief on pipeline
  • Provide strainers on both sides of heat exchanger
    (reduces cleaning of heat exchanger).
  • Provide air separator on pipeline side of system.
  • Provide glycol system monitoring and makeup.
  • Provide expansion compensation
  • Dont use HDPE pipe. Copper, Steel, PEX,
    Stainless steel.
  • Monitor pipeline for leaks and pressure.

39
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40
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