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Visual Impairment Awareness

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Visual Impairment Awareness SNFWB Programme Introduction and Quiz Anatomy of the eye: Common eye conditions that challenge functional vision Accessibility: the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Visual Impairment Awareness


1
Visual Impairment Awareness
  • SNFWB

2
Programme
  • Introduction and Quiz
  • Anatomy of the eye Common eye conditions that
    challenge functional vision
  • Accessibility the physical environment
  • Activities of daily living, problems solutions
    and emotional responses
  • Communications Exercise
  • Sighted Guide AwarenessTraining
  • Accessibility and information how to ensure
    information is accessible for people with a
    visual impairment
  • Summary.

3
Aims
  • This training course is about visual impairment.
    The aims of the course are to give participants a
    better understanding of the issues affecting
    people with a visual impairment. It also covers
    challenges and solutions for those who are
    learning to provide effective assistance. It is
    designed to improve inclusive practice and
    suggest solutions to make life better for
    everybody.

4
Learning outcomes for the morning session
  • Participants will be able to
  • List at least three eye conditions and explain
    how they could affect functional vision using
    handouts
  • List 3 factors which make for an inclusive
    environment using handouts
  • Experience six tasks of daily living under
    simulation
  • Discuss and give details of any difficulties
    experienced and emotional reactions to the
    simulation
  • List at least 4 aids to daily living and their
    uses, using handouts provided.

5
Structure of the Eye
6
Functions of Vision
  • Focus the lens of the eye brings the image
    into focus at the back of the eye much like the
    lens of a camera
  • Movement Eye movement is controlled by muscles
    around the eye
  • visual acuity This term refers to the ability to
    see fine detail
  • visual field This is the area your vision
    covers, normally about 180 degrees
  • stereoscopic vision The ability to see with both
    eyes allows judgments to be made about distance
  • colour vision The ability to distinguish
    different colours
  • contrast sensitivity Black on a white background
    provides good contrast. Some people need better
    contrast than others to assist with vision
  • light sensitivity the pupil expands and
    contracts to allow light into the eye, this can
    be painful for some people.
  • visual perception the ability of the brain to
    make sense of visual information.

7
How do we See?
  • Tricks we can do

8
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11
Eye Conditions
  • Macular degeneration Loss of central vision
    affects ability to see fine detail
  • Glaucoma Loss of peripheral vision, opacity,
    can affect fine detail
  • Diabetic retinopathy Causes patchy vision
  • Nystagmus Difficulty in focusing
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa Loss of peripheral vision,
    night blindness
  • Cataracts Reduced detail vision
  • Neurological Vision Loss causes loss of visual
    field in both eyes.

12
Visual Acuity 1
Loss of detail Vision Here we see the same
scene from the point of view of someone with
perfect vision and someone with a loss of visual
acuity. Consider how bright light or glare, and
changing lighting levels might affect someone
with this type of sight loss. This type of loss
might be caused by cataracts.
13
Visual Acuity 2
Here is an everyday object seen from different
perspectives with different degrees of visual
acuity. Notice how colour and contrast is
important in deciphering the nature of the object
14
Visual Acuity 3
  • What is helpful in this picture for people with a
    visual impairment?

15
Field Loss 1
Here is a street scene viewed at different times
of the day, the picture on the right shows a
peripheral field loss. Consider the difficulties
that this might cause. This type of field loss
might be a result of Retinitis Pigmentosa and
could lead to night blindness
16
Field Loss 2
Road Crossing with a severe sight loss. In this
example we can see how difficult mobility can be
with a severe tunnel vision.
17
Field Loss 3
In this picture we see how central field loss can
affect vision. As central vision is also
responsible for clear vision, we can see how this
type of loss affects acuity, causing problems
with recognition of faces and reading. This type
of visual loss can be a result of macular
degeneration.
18
Field Loss 4
Here we see two pictures illustrating retinal
scarring, with patchy vision, which can result
from diabetic retinopathy or retinal damage.
19
Field Loss 5 ( set of 4)
Here we see a loss of half the visual field in
each eye, in the following slides we can see some
of the effects of this.
20
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23
Access to the Physical Environment
  • Exercise 1. Discussion topic. Split into four
    groups. What factors might affect vision and
    someones ability to get around.
  • Exercise 2. In your groups look at the pictures
    and identify any helpful and unhelpful features
    for someone with a sight loss. Where there are
    unhelpful features what improvements could be
    made?
  • Exercise 3. In your groups consider your own
    workplace and identify 3 features that could be
    improved and three positive design features for
    each place of work.

24
Factors affecting accessibility and vision
  • Quality and fluctuation of light and lighting
  • Reflected light and glare
  • Audible information
  • Tactile information
  • Contrast and design
  • Weather
  • Eye condition and functional vision

25
Access 1
  • Consider any difficulties that someone with a
    visual impairment might experience with this
    situation. How could it be improved? Are there
    any good design features here?

26
Access and Design 1
  • Signage board easier to read at eye level
  • Lettering should contrast with background
  • Tactile lettering and Braille are accessible
  • A non reflective surface eliminates glare
  • Shaded patterns make the lettering difficult to
    read. Place sign where there is no shade.

27
Access 2
  • Consider any difficulties that someone with a
    visual impairment might experience with this
    situation. How could it be improved? Are there
    any good design features here?

28
Access and Design 2
  • Clear line of travel
  • Well maintained pavement
  • Low bollards on left of pavement are a trip
    hazard as contrast is poor good contrast is
    necessary
  • Parked vehicles to left of bollard are a hazard
    for visually impaired people Parking policies
    need to be enforced
  • Pavement parking is always a problem

29
Access 3
  • Consider any difficulties that someone with a
    visual impairment might experience with this
    situation. How could it be improved? Are there
    any good design features here?

30
Access and Design 3
  • White contrast on risers generally a good point
  • Separate well lit flight of steps for people with
    a visual impairment would be better
  • In this case steps lead to obstacle in shape of
    ramp
  • Wheelchair ramp results in steps of uneven height
  • No lighting for dark nights
  • Poor design a result of catch all policy
    designing for two different disabilities

31
Access 4
  • Consider any difficulties that someone with a
    visual impairment might experience with this
    situation. How could it be improved? Are there
    any good design features here?

32
Access and Design 4
  • Urinals should contrast with background
  • Hand drier should contrast with the background
  • Contrasting blue wall provides an indication of
    line of travel
  • White décor could result in glare from shiny
    surfaces use matt surfaces whenever possible
  • Lighting is even with no patchy areas

33
Access 5
  • Consider any difficulties that someone with a
    visual impairment might experience with this
    situation. How could it be improved? Are there
    any good design features here?

34
Access and Design 5
  • All wall mounted features contrast well with the
    background and can be easily picked out
  • Lighting is even and there are no confusing
    shadows
  • Floor and walls are plain with no confusing
    patterns
  • Good use made of window light with frosted glass
    to minimise glare

35
Access 6
  • Consider any difficulties that someone with a
    visual impairment might experience with this
    situation. How could it be improved? Are there
    any good design features here?

36
Access and Design 6
  • Good colour contrast between rail and walls
  • Lighting designed for even coverage
  • Signage clear and well positioned
  • Vertical Blinds good for controlling daylight
  • Glass entrance door could cause confusing
    patterns on carpet in bright sunlight
  • Tactile clues underfoot given by floor mats

37
An Inclusive Environment
  • Evenly lit with good task lighting
  • Consistent well designed signage
  • Tactile surfaces incorporated
  • Indoors window light controlled by vertical
    blinds
  • Non reflective surfaces
  • Audible signage
  • Smooth well maintained surface to walk on
  • Clear unobstructed path
  • Use of colour contrast e.g. stair edges
  • Plain unpatterned design for surfaces

38
Aids to Daily Living Exercise
  • Working in groups of twos or threes take turns at
    each of the following exercises under simulation
  • Pouring liquids
  • Writing with a writing frame
  • Reading a newspaper with sim specs and magnifier
  • Filling in a questionnaire with sim specs
  • Telling the time using a small dial watch
  • Examining the table with aids and devices and
    consider their possible functions

39
Aids to Daily Living
  • Patience and understanding
  • Talking/audible devices clock, radio,
    newspapers, books, rain alert, Liquid level
    indicator etc
  • Tactile devices Writing Frame, Braille, Moon,
    rotating cone, signature guide etc.
  • Magnifiers
  • High tech solutions Computer Programmes, Video
    Magnifier, Braille computer etc.

40
Daily Living Hints and Tips
  • Allow people plenty time as tasks of independent
    living can take longer and require more care
  • be understanding Loss model grieving for loss
    of ability can be like a bereavement
  • Always take time to listen to the person
  • Encourage independence by allowing people to do
    things for themselves, even if this does take
    more time
  • Do not underestimate peoples abilities to do
    things for themselves.

41
Objectives/Learning Outcomes for afternoon session
  • Participants will be able to
  • Discuss and identify at least three practical
    interventions which demonstrate good practice in
    communications
  • Demonstrate the guiding grip and position, narrow
    spaces, inward turn, doors, stairs and seating.
    These are guiding techniques
  • List at least 3 Principles of good print design
    using handouts
  • List at least three alternative formats for
    information production
  • List two features of an accessible website.

42
Communication Exercise
  • Discussion Exercise The group should discuss a
    controversial topic e.g.
  • 1. Should blind children be placed in special
    schools or integrated into mainstream education?
  • 2. Should elderly blind adults be placed in care
    homes or remain in their own homes?
  • 3. Do you think that there should be an extra
    tax on blind people for healthcare?

43
Communication Exercise
  • What was the volunteers experience of this
    situation
  • What was the rest of the groups experience of the
    situation
  • What made the situation difficult for
    participants
  • What would make this situation easier for all
    concerned

44
Communications Hints and Tips
  • Some people say they feel awkward about talking
    to a blind or partially sighted person, however
    they do not really need to if they remember a few
    simple things.
  • asking permission to record their sight loss on
    their records (if appropriate) so that other
    staff can know is helpful
  • Announce that you are in the room and identify
    yourself and any other person you are with to a
    person with a visual impairment.
  • Say what you are doing, for example, coming to
    get something.
  • Talk directly to the person - not through a
    companion.
  • Stand where you can be seen or let the person
    know where you are. Try to avoid talking from
    behind the person.

45
Communications Hints and Tips
  • Speak distinctly to the person. You do not need
    to raise your voice.
  • Always answer questions and be specific and
    descriptive in your responses.
  • Say when you are leaving and where you are going
    if it is appropriate, for example, going to the
    kitchen to get a cup of tea.
  • If you offer assistance, wait until the offer is
    accepted. Then listen to or ask for instructions.
  • Don't be afraid to ask questions when you're
    unsure of what to do.
  • Relax. Don't be embarrassed if you happen to use
    common expressions that seem to relate to a
    person's disability. Such as "See you later" or
    "did you watch TV last night?" These are commonly
    used expressions and rarely cause offence.

46
Sighted Guide Awareness
  • Sighted Guide is a form of communication
  • Verbal communication is central to good guiding
  • The guide should lead in almost all circumstances
  • Being able to guide properly builds a trusting
    relationship and is a positive contribution
  • Respect peoples wishes at all times unless they
    are putting themselves or you in danger.

47
Designing Printed Materials
  • Large Print 16 Point
  • San Serif Font e.g. arial
  • Matt surface no reflection
  • Uncluttered background
  • Good contrast between print and background
  • Simple layout
  • Consider individual requirements

48
Alternative Formats
  • Braille
  • Moon
  • Large Print
  • Audio
  • Electronic Format

49
Learning outcomes for the morning session
  • Participants will be able to
  • List at least three eye conditions and explain
    how they could affect functional vision using
    handouts
  • List 3 factors which make for an inclusive
    environment using handouts
  • Experience six tasks of daily living under
    simulation
  • Discuss and give details of any difficulties
    experienced and emotional reactions to the
    simulation
  • List at least 4 aids to daily living and their
    uses, using handouts provided.

50
Objectives/Learning Outcomes for afternoon session
  • Participants will be able to
  • Discuss and identify at least three practical
    interventions which demonstrate good practice in
    communications
  • Demonstrate the guiding grip and position, narrow
    spaces, inward turn, doors, stairs and seating.
    These are guiding techniques
  • List at least 3 Principles of good print design
    using handouts
  • List at least three alternative formats for
    information production
  • List two features of an accessible website.
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