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Problem-Based Learning (PBL) applied to team environments: A visual literature review

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Problem-Based Learning (PBL) applied to team environments: A visual literature review & exercise Barbara Lauridsen, MBA Core Adjunct Faculty, National University, – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Problem-Based Learning (PBL) applied to team environments: A visual literature review


1
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) applied to team
environments A visual literature review
exercise
(Stonyer Marshall, 2002)
  • Barbara Lauridsen, MBA
  • Core Adjunct Faculty, National University,
  • Learner, (ABD IT Education), Capella University
  • April 19, 2012

Slide deck and paper are available from
www.barbaralauridsen.com, connections page
2
Problem-Based Learning(sampling of definitions)
an inquiry-based pedagogy best rooted in sound
understanding of the psychological processes of
problem solving and the development of cognition
(Tan, 2007, p. 101). a process of moving toward
knowledge while solving a problem (Barrows
Tambyln, 1980) in which learners develop their
own position on a problem and develop meaningful
solutions. Learning is constructed by the
learners but facilitated by an instructor acting
as coach (Igo, Moore, Ramsey, Ricketts, 2008).
3
Problem-Based Learning(sampling of definitions)
an instructional method focusing on a problem as
the root of learning which is facilitated by a
trained tutor (Kennedy, 2007). a cyclical
situation in which learners collectively solve an
ill-structured, complex problem accessing prior
knowledge and conduct research and devises an
action plan. For online PBL, a group works
collaboratively across distance including
synchronous or asynchronous communications and
which has constructivist epistemology as it
foundation (Sims, 2009, p. 8, 13).
4
Problem-Based Learning(sampling of definitions)
an education approach that reflects learning
directions of today, emphasizing real-life
vignettes, self-directed learning and
co-operative learning together with other
students in small groups, (Hammar, 2008, p.
514). a student-centered pedagogy, offers a
strong framework upon which to build a curriculum
that will teach our students the necessary
problem solving and critical thinking skills to
solve the complex problems of the future (James
Madison University, School of Engineering).
5
Problem-Based Learning (PBL)(elements in common)
  • student-centered, facilitator/coach guided
  • an educational strategy involving authentic,
    real world scenarios
  • problems are complex, significant, engage
    critical thinking of small teams
  • activates team members prior knowledge, builds
    new knowledge
  • F2F becoming virtual or blended

6
Donnellys 2009 study for blended PBL
  • important to seek best practices for how to
    combine instructional strategies in face-to-face
    and computer-mediated environments that take
    advantage of the strengths of each to
    establish, in a PBL tutorial setting, the factors
    that govern the success of blended PBL
    opportunity to dialogue with a range of
    international experts (Donnelly, 2009, pp.
    548-549).

Donnelly, R. (2009). Interaction and
transformation in virtual problem-based learning
communities. Proceedings Of The IADIS
International Conference On WWW/Internet,
548-549.
7
Donnellys 2009 elements of blended PBL
Learning Design Description Blend of Web 2.0 Technologies
Tasks activities, problems and interactions used to engage the learners, on which learning is based Wikis, Blogs, Concept Maps
Resources content, information, and resources with which the learners interact, upon which learning is based Discussion Boards, Podcasts, Social Bookmarking
Supports scaffolds, structures, encouragements, motivations, assistances and connections used to support learning Live Classroom, Micro-blogging on Twitter

Donnelly, R. (2009). Interaction and
transformation in virtual problem-based learning
communities. Proceedings Of The IADIS
International Conference On WWW/Internet,
548-549.
8
Challenges
At all stages of education our challenge is to
enable students to act out the problems and
issues under discussion and make decisions about
them based on a more personal understanding of
their nature and implications (Jaques and Salmon
2007, p. 139).
Cited in Hahn, I. (2009). Enhancing the outcome
problem-based teamwork using social software.
Proceedings Of The IADIS International
Conference On WWW/Internet, 407-410.
9
Challenges
  • Tutors can support multiple sessions for
    Problem-Based groups using asynchronous social
    software (Hahn, 2009)
  • instant messaging, possibility for multi-user
    chat,
  • forums, during group meetings or presentations,
  • wikis, iterative communication, automated
    minutes, track collaborations, recordings,
    commenting on articles, text editing (version
    control), presenting
  • blogs, FAQs, commenting on online articles, menu
    bar features, embedded links, blogroll

Hahn, I. (2009). Enhancing the outcome
problem-based teamwork using social software.
Proceedings Of The IADIS International
Conference On WWW/Internet, 407-410.
10
Challenges
To improve engineering education, it is
essential that curricula bring students to high
levels of cognitive development by exposing them
to real-world problem solving. Undergraduate
research and industry experiences provide a
strong basis for our students to learn these
essential, problem-based, and globally
competitive skills (National Science
Foundation, NSF Career Project).
James Madison University, School of Engineering,
http//www.jmu.edu/engineering/research/nsfcareer.
html
11
2 pitfalls of PBL practice
  • a poor classification of what constitutes PBL
    experiences
  • limited assessment studies grounded on strong
    methodology
  • Reason? PBL practice develops skills that are
    difficult to measure.
  • (James Madison University, School of Engineering)

James Madison University, School of Engineering,
http//www.jmu.edu/engineering/research/underenged
u.html
12
Classifying Problems
James Madison University, School of Engineering,
http//www.jmu.edu/engineering/research/underenged
u.html
13
Problem Dynamics
Problem-based double-loop learning Yeo, R. K.
(2007b). (Re)viewing problem-based learning An
exploratory study on the perceptions of its
applicability to the workplace. Journal of
Managerial Psychology, 22(4), 369-391.
14
Insight (our incentive today)
  • The nature of peer tutoring and knowledge
    sharing in PBL provides a repository of
    information through various systematized
    activities to facilitate shared learning (Yoe,
    2007, p. 308)

Yeo, R. K. (2007a). Turning to the problem is the
answer to the question of how you can learn
faster than others applying PBL at work.
Industrial and Commercial Training, 39(6), 307.
15
Learning Networks
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
16
Learning Networks doing..
a set of actions, decision making, problem
solving, activation of hidden knowledge.
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
17
Learning Networks doing..
shared experience, increasing level of
collective knowledge, exploring learn by
reflecting adjusting each experience
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
18
socializing Learning Networks
process of socializing in situations of team
learning and problem solving.
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
19
socializing Learning Networks
nurturing a collective mindfulness of problems
and issues faced
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
20
Learning Networks systematizing
spontaneous learning through a series of guided
activities
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
21
Learning Networks systematizing
opportunity for transfer of tacit to explicit
knowledge
Expansion of learning networks through PBL (Yoe,
2007a, p. 309)
22
Walking the talk, the essence of PBL
  • A typical PBL cycle involves both the thoughts
    and actions of employees acting as change agents.
    In the process, they are consciously engaged in a
    variety of such activities as active
    communication, questioning, reflection and task
    execution
  • (Yoe, 2007, p. 309).

Yoe, R. (2007a). Turning to the problem is the
answer to the question of how you can learn
faster than others applying PBL at work.
Industrial and Commercial Training, 39(6)
23
Mental Models
McLaren et al. (2007). Do you know what you don't
know? Critical reflection and concept reflection
and concept mapping in an information systems
strategy course. Communications of AIS, 2007(20),
892-908.
24
Basic PBL Overview
Strategic positioning within a higher education
institution, with a integrated communication
environment, is essential for effective
introduction of the PBL approach (Stonyer
Marshall, 2002).
Stonyer, H. Marshall, L. (2002), Moving to
problem-based learning in the NZ Engineering
workplace, Journal of Workplace Learning,14(5),
190-197.
25
Basic PBL Phases
PBL operating in workplace context (Yeo, 2007c,
p. 45, citing Kolb, 1984 and Cockerill et al.
1996)
26
Basic PBL Phases
(Adapted by Yeo, 2008, p. 324, 2007, p. 48, from
Kolb 1984, Cockerill et al. 1996)
27
Basic PBL Steps
(Schmidt, 1993, p. 233)
Schmidt, H. G. (1993). Foundations of
problem-based learning some explanatory notes.
Medical Education, 27(0), 422-432
28
PBL Action Steps / Course Assessment
(Masse et al., 2009, p. 3)
29
PBL, effect on competencies
(Biglow, 2004, p. 606)
Bigelow, J. D. (2004). Using problem-based
learning to develop skills in solving
unstructured problems. Journal of Management
Education, 28(5), 591-609.
30
Competencies (before after)
Mockup of value gained for PBL lessons in solving
complex problems (Adapted from Biglow, 2004, p.
606)
31
Phases of PBL for scenario planning
Phase Purpose (adapted from Allert et al. 2002)
Goal Description Define a problem scenario to demonstrate course learning outcomes, establish an ultimate goal for team project.
Specify Criteria Specify criteria to be met. What is the focus of the testing? How will you know when you have reached your target?
Background Knowledge Identify knowledge needed to accomplish the goal. Ask experts? Research and adapt best practices?
Generate Ideas Brainstorm generate relevant and interesting ideas.
Implement Solution Generate, develop and implement an adapted solution for verifying the requirements or validating the system.
Reflect Evaluate reflect on your solution(s) and on the process we went thought, the lessons learned.
Generalize Conceptualize, integrate, and generalize previous knowledge about systems and new learning.
Allert et al. (2002). Meta-level category role
in metadata standards for learning instructional
roles and instructional qualities of learning
objects, COSIGN 2002 - The 2nd International
Conference on Computational Semiotics for Games
and New Media.
32
Research issues in problem solving
Table 1. Case components and cognitive scaffolds
for problem solving (adapted from Jonassen, 2010,
p. 12)
Problem Type Case Components, Problems are
Story Problems worked examples, analogues
Rule Using/ Rule Induction worked examples, analogues
Decision making case studies, alternative perspectives
Troubleshooting, Diagnosis solution prior experiences, alternative perspectives
Strategic performance prior experiences, simulations
Policy analysis case studies, prior experiences, alternative perspectives
Design prior experiences, alternative perspectives
Dilemmas alternative perspectives
Jonassen, D. H. (2010, September-October).
Research issues in problem solving. The 11th
International Conference on Education Research
New Paradigm for Learning and Instruction.
33
Multiple Learning Strategies
(adapted from Bygholm Buus, 2009, p. 19)
Bygholm, A. Buus, L. (2009). Managing the gap
between curriculum based and problem based
learning Deployment of multiple learning
strategies in design and delivery of online
courses in computer science. International
Journal of Education and development using
Information and communication Technology
(IJEDICT) 5(1), 13-22
34
Problem Difficulty
Classification Framework (External Factors
endemic to the problem)
(based on Jonassen Hung, 2008, as cited in
Pierrakos et al., 2010)
Jonassen, D. H., Hung, W. (2008) All problems are
not equal Implications for problem-based
learning. The Interdisciplinary Journal of
Problem-based Learning, 2(2), 6-28.
35
Inquiry Learning Process
The discussion module of Future Learning
Environment (FLE) tools has seven build-in
scaffolds problem, working theory, deepening
knowledge, comment, metacomment, summary and
help (Muukkonen et al. 1999, p. 4)
Muukkonen et al. (1999). Computer support for
knowledge building.
36
Brian (2010, April 19). Curious to Learn? Random
Thoughts and Focused Minds Center for Teaching
Learning.
37
Problem-Based Learning Cycle
Overview/Assessment
Problem, Project, or Assignment
Mini-lecture(only when needed!)
Group Discussion
Whole Class Discussion
Research
Preparation ofGroup Product
Group Discussion
de Vry, J., Watson, G. Frey, B. (2006).
Modeling and assessing online discussion for
faculty learning and technology development
Presentation. Educause
38
Problem-based learning steps
Webquest EDUC335. (2009, February 22).
Differentiated Instruction Examples of
di-strategies Webpage.
39
Live PBL Exercise ltabout 10 minutesgt
  • Within breakout rooms, with one member acting as
    moderator, to expedite, the brainstorming will be
    verbal and text streaming.
  • Scenario A program lead has requested that a
    task force provide a game-plan for extending
    learning delivery to allow bring-your-own-device
    (BYOD).
  • What is known? Compose a first generalized
    problem statement, then, after reflection,
    what is the risk or challenge for a shift to
    BYOD?
  • What needs to be known? Return with a problem
    statement (not a solution) to the chat box

40
PBL Model 7 Steps
  • Analyze the problem scenario.
  • List what is known.
  • Develop a problem statement.
  • List what is needed.
  • List possible actions,
  • Analyze information
  • Present findings (summary of experience)

41
PBL Model Step 1
  • 1. Read and analyze the problem scenario. 1
    Check your understanding of the scenario by
    discussing it within your breakout group.
  • A team effort may be more effective in isolating
    the key factors in this situation.
  • Because the scenarios are real-like problem
    solving situations, in a learning exercise, you
    will actively search 2 for information to
    understand and to resolve the problem.

1 Start with a exercise problem statement,
expand your understanding, build a scenario or a
mental model. 2 Use text book, the internet,
plus prior knowledge. lttoday, we will only
pretend to do these searchesgt
42
PBL Model Step 2
  • 2. List what is known.
  • Start a list of everything known from members of
    your group
  • Potentially, add knowledge that others bring
    (e.g. authors, classmates, learners, professors)
  • Perhaps list things people think they know, with
    some uncertainty or some degree of confidence

43
PBL Model Step 3
  • 3. Develop a problem statement. A problem
    statement should come from your analysis of what
    you do know, constrained or represented by the
    real world stories found
  • In one or two sentences you should be able to
    describe what it is that you are trying to solve,
    produce, respond to, or discover.
  • The problem statement may be revised as new
    information is discovered and brought to bear on
    the situation.

44
PBL Model Step 4
  • 4. List what is needed.
  • List questions you think need to be answered to
    solve (or resolve) the problem or issue
  • Record "What do we need to know?"
  • Several types of questions may be appropriate.
    Some questions may address concepts or principles
    that need to be learned in order to address the
    situation,
  • Requests for more information to guide searches
    that may take place on-line, in the library, or
    out-of-class searches, perhaps interviews.

45
PBL Model Step 5
  • 5. List possible actions.
  • List practical solutions, or hypotheses under the
    heading "What should we do?...or What should be
    done?"
  • List actions to be taken, e.g., ask an expert
    (author, instructor, classmate), get on-line data
    ideas, visit an eLibrary, or eJournals

46
PBL Model Step 6
  • 6. Analyze information.
  • Analyze situation information assembled. Revise
    problem statement to consider scope, resources or
    schedule.
  • Refine the potential learning opportunities.
  • At this point, your team can formulate and/or
    test hypotheses to explain the problem. Some
    problems may only require a recommended solution
    or opinion (based on research data)
  • Be practical and pragmatic.

47
PBL Model Step 7
  • 7. Present findings
  • Prepare a concise report in which you make
    recommendations, inferences, or other appropriate
    resolution of the problem based on your data and
    background, to support a recommendation
  • Note The steps in this model may have to be
    visited several times. Steps two through five may
    be conducted concurrently. As more information is
    gathered, the problem statement may be refined or
    altered to reflect expanding understanding.

48
PBL Model 7 Steps (review)
  • Analyze the problem scenario
  • List what is known
  • Develop a problem statement
  • List what is needed
  • List possible actions
  • Analyze information
  • Present findings (summary of experience)

49
According to de Vry, Watson and Frey (2006) good
PBL Problems
  • relate to real world, motivates learners
  • require decision-making or judgments
  • are multi-page, multi-stage
  • are designed for group-solving
  • pose open-ended initial questions that encourage
    discussion
  • incorporate course content objectives, higher
    order thinking, other skills

de Vry, J., Watson, G. Frey, B. (2006).
Modeling and assessing online discussion for
faculty learning and technology development
Presentation. EDUCAUSE. Retrieved from
http//net.educause.edu/ir/library/powerpoint/MAC0
634.pps
50
Live PBL Exercise ltabout 10 minutesgt
  • Within breakout rooms, with one member acting as
    moderator, to expedite, the brainstorming will be
    verbal and text streaming.
  • Scenario A program lead has requested that a
    task force provide a game-plan for extending
    learning delivery to allow bring-your-own-device
    (BYOD).
  • What is known? Compose a first generalized
    problem statement, then, after reflection,
    what is the risk or challenge for a shift to
    BYOD?
  • What needs to be known? Return with a problem
    statement (not a solution) to the chat box

51
Brainstorming
Goal, the end result expected a good idea and
experience of collaboration
Customizing the scenarios, alternatives
Understanding a game-plan
Resources? People, technology, tools,
environments
52
Feedback from the PBL sessions
Muukkonen et al. (1999). Computer support for
knowledge building. http//mlab.uiah.fi/fle/resear
ch/eawoppaper.html
53
Inquiry Process
Adapted from http//www.classroom20.com/group/inqu
irybasedlearning/forum/topics/relevant-research-on
-inquiry?
54
Questions?
55
Key References
Brian (2010, April 19). Curious to Learn? Random
Thoughts and Focused Minds Center for Teaching
Learning. Webpage.
de Vry, J., Watson, G. Frey, B. (2006).
Modeling and assessing online discussion for
faculty learning and technology development
Presentation. EDUCAUSE.
Jonassen, D. H., Hung, W. (2008) All problems are
not equal Implications for problem-based
learning. The Interdisciplinary Journal of
Problem-based Learning, 2(2), 6-28. Pierrakos,
O., Zilberberg, A., Anderson, R. (2010).
Understanding undergraduate research experiences
through the lens of problem-based learning
Implications for curriculum translation.
Interdisciplinary Journal Of Problem-Based
Learning, 4(2), 35-62.
Wang, Thompson, Shuler Harvey (1999),
Problem-Based Learning for Science Teachers
Professional Development Presentation 1999
ABETS Annual Conference.
Webquest EDUC335. (2009, February 22).
Differentiated Instruction Examples of
di-strategies Webpage.
56
PBL Exercise (alternative)
  • Team members follow a moderator
  • Scenario Your team provide an assessment of
    what is known about open-ended problems
  • ltbreakout1gt To expedite, the brainstorming will
    be verbal with a scribe posting keywords
  • ltreturngt each team will express what is known,
    and type a problem statement into text chat.
  • ltbreakout2gt Reflection what are the challenges
    to be faced?
  • ltreturn to main room with a refined problem
    statementgt

57
PBL Exercise ltcontinuedgt
  • live PBL team experience
  • ltbreakout3gt
  • Discuss and reflect, what are the opportunities,
    challenges to be faced where open-ended is
    relevant now, during brainstorming a vision?
  • Together, refine the problem statement (putting
    into a scribes clipboard) then, when ready, the
    teams moderator can use the menu option to
    return members to the main room
  • ltreturngt three revised problem statements will be
    entered into chat, and discussed
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