Police Officer Suicide: NSW Police Force. 1999 to 2005 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Police Officer Suicide: NSW Police Force. 1999 to 2005 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 43653d-MDczZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Police Officer Suicide: NSW Police Force. 1999 to 2005

Description:

Police Officer Suicide: NSW Police Force. 1999 to 2005 Stephen W. Barron Research Goals: To investigate suicide by NSW Police Officers using a Psychological Autopsy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:407
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 27
Provided by: Step640
Learn more at: http://barronpsych.com.au
Category:
Tags: nsw | force | officer | police | suicide

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Police Officer Suicide: NSW Police Force. 1999 to 2005


1
Police Officer SuicideNSW Police Force.1999 to
2005
  • Stephen W. Barron

2
Research Goals
  • To investigate suicide by NSW Police Officers
    using a Psychological Autopsy Protocol.
  • Identify the key psychological, social and
    occupational factors associated with police
    officer suicide.

3
SUICIDE A MULTI-FACTORIAL EVENT
Psychiatric IllnessCo-morbidity
Neurobiology
Personality Disorder/Traits
Impulsiveness
Substance Use/Abuse
Hopelessness
Severe Medical Illness
Suicide
Family History
Access To Weapons
Psychodynamics/ Psychological Vulnerability
Life Stressors
Suicidal Behavior
4
PSYCHOSOCIAL SITUATION LIFE STRESSORS
  • Recent severe, stressful life events associated
    with suicide in vulnerable individuals (Moscicki
    1997).
  • Stressors include interpersonal loss or conflict,
    economic problems, legal problems, and moving
    (Brent et al 1993b, Lesage et al 1994, Rich et al
    1998a, Moscicki 1997).
  • High risk stressor humiliating events, e.g.,
    financial ruin associated with scandal, being
    arrested or being fired (Hirschfeld and Davidson
    1988) can lead to impulsive suicide.
  • Identify stressor in context of personality
    strength, vulnerabilities, illness, and support
    system.
  • All studies are reviews

5
PROTECTIVE FACTORS
  • Children in the home, except among those with
    postpartum psychosis
  • Pregnancy
  • Deterrent religious beliefs
  • Life satisfaction
  • Reality testing ability
  • Positive coping skills
  • Positive social support
  • Positive therapeutic relationship

6
The Psychological Autopsy protocol.
  • An investigative technique where the aim is to
    gather enough information about the circumstances
    of a persons death (suicide) to gain an
    understanding of the reasons for that death
    (suicide),
  • Hawton et al (1998)

7
Psychological Autopsy
  • Method is speculative, probabilistic and results
    in a professional opinion regarding the causes
    and events which may have contributed to the
    decision to suicide.
  • Present protocol was adapted from De Leo Evans
    (2002) study of suicide in Qld.

8
Methodology/Data
  • Comprehensive review of all deaths reported to
    the NSW Coroner of Police Officers 1999 to May
    2005.
  • Mortality rate of serving police officers was 190
    deaths (NSW Police HR data) within the sampled
    years, with
  • 103 deaths reported to the NSW Coroner.

9
NSW Police Mortality
  • Heart Disease 10 deaths,
  • Accidents 8 deaths,
  • Motor Vehicle collisions 11 deaths,
  • Homicide 8 deaths,
  • Alcohol related abuse 2 deaths,
  • Suicide 35 deaths,
  • Other causes 25 deaths,
  • Unknown causes 4 deaths.

10
NSW Police Mortality contd
  • 9 deaths of police officers whilst on duty
  • 4 traveling in police vehicles,
  • 3 firearm related wounds, and
  • 2 officers stabbed.
  • Overall 4.7 of all deaths are on duty,
  • Suicide rate accounts for 18 of all NSW police
    officer deaths.

11
Suicide Rate comparison.
  • NSW (2005) suicide rate 11.5 per 100,000
    (gen. popn.)
  • NSW Police (2005) suicide rate of 20.7 per
    100,000.
  • U.S. best guestimate 18 per 100,000
  • (Aamodt Werlick, 1999)

12
Suicide Frequency (1999-2005)
13
Demographic Data.
  • Males 32 Females 2
  • Mean age 35 years,
  • Marital status
  • Married 40
  • Single 31.5
  • De facto 11.5
  • Separated 14
  • Divorced 3

14
Demographic data contd.
  • Religious affiliation
  • Catholic 74
  • Anglican, Church of England 17
  • (1995 study of police recruits 35 C of E and
    36 Roman Catholic).

15
Demographic data contd.
  • Location 47 at home 20 at a police station,
  • Years of service 34 with less than 12 months
    service (average), and 51 with less then 10
    years of years of service,
  • 57 of officers committed suicide had children.

16
Occupational Stressors.
  • Performance/adjustment issues 31,
  • Problematic work relationships 17,
  • Under investigation 22 (underestimate since
    internal complaint figures were not available),
  • Work related trauma 8.5.

17
Method of Suicide.
  • Hanging - 17,
  • Firearm - 43,
  • Drug overdose - 14,
  • Motor Vehicle exhaust - 9,
  • Other - 17.

18
Suicide Communication.
  • Overall 43 communicated suicide intent with
    other persons, including family, friends and work
    colleagues.
  • 38 of officers who committed suicide left a
    suicide note.

19
Contact with Medical Practitioners prior to death.
  • Visited their G.Ps within 1 day 3 months prior
    to death 34,
  • Visited mental health professional within 12
    months of their death 40,
  • Taking medications at time of death 40
    (anti-depressants most common).

20
Presence of Mental Illness at time of death.
  • Overall 77 of deceased officers indicated some
    evidence of mental illness,
  • Of these
  • Depressive Disorders 31.5,
  • Personality Disorders 14,
  • Anxiety - 14,
  • Schizophrenia - 6,
  • No indications - 23.

21
Other Results.
  • Acute events 40 of deaths,
  • Binge or heavy alcohol use 30,
  • Smokers 66,
  • Referred by NSW Police for intervention 51.5,
  • Presence of negative life events 63,
  • Presence of trigger event 20,
  • Relationship bdown within 12 months 60.

22
Officer Suicide Risk Profile.
  • Characteristics
  • Personal - male, about 35 years of age, married,
    catholic, residing at home with spouse/partner
    and children, smoker.
  • Social moderate to heavy drinker, affected by
    alcohol at death, access to firearm, communicated
    intention to family or work colleague,
    relationship breakdown within 12 months and
    increased negative life events within 3 months of
    death.

23
Risk Profile contd.
  • Characteristics Contd
  • Occupational less than 10 years of service,
    currently under investigation for work related
    incident or performance issue, referred for
    workplace support/assessment, whose work related
    problems are known by colleagues and/or managers.
  • Psychological recent history of mental illness
    (usually depression), taking prescribed
    medication, no previous history or suicide, no
    previous attempts, visited medical practitioner 3
    months prior to death.

24
Healthy Worker bias effect.(Carpenter, 1987).
  • Form of positive selection bias regarded as
    occupational protective factors re suicide risk
  • Pre-recruitment and selection screening,
    including multi-level selection processes,
  • Cohesiveness of the organisation,
  • Medical and mental illness support,
  • Perceived meaningfulness of employment.
  • (Violanti, 1996 Hourani et al, 1999 Miller,
    2000 Agerbo, 2005).

25
Issue.
  • When we consider the Healthy Worker effect,
    excluding the unemployed, mentally ill, elderly,
    young and adolescent risk takers, drug and
    alcohol abusers, people with no access to
    support-
  • For police we might then expect a lower than
    general population average for suicide or does
    the availability of firearms explain the
    difference?

26
Questions?
  • Contact
  • sbarron_at_csu.edu.au
About PowerShow.com