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The Black Death

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The Black Death Crowd diseases: Parasites, e.g. schistosomiasis Contagious diseases, e.g. measles Epidemics Domesticated animals The Biology of Plague Endemic disease ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Black Death


1
The Black Death
2
Human Population
3
  • Crowd diseases
  • Parasites, e.g. schistosomiasis
  • Contagious diseases, e.g. measles
  • Epidemics
  • Domesticated animals

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The Biology of Plague
  • Endemic disease, Epidemics and Pandemics
  • The Three Great Pandemics

8
6th and 7th Centuries AD
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The Medieval Pandemic
11
The Modern Pandemic
12
The Biology of Plague
  • Bacillus Yersinia pestis

13
The Biology of Plague
  • Rattus rattus (Black Rat)

14
The Biology of Plague
  • Flea Xenopsylla cheopis

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Types of Plague
  • Primary Bubonic
  • Transmitted by fleas
  • Buboes
  • 60-90 mortality

17
Types of Plague - 2
  • Primary bacteraemic (septicaemic)
  • Secondary bacteraemic
  • Primary pneumonic
  • Secondary pneumonic
  • Transmitted by air-borne droplets
  • Not too infectious

18
The Black Death
  • Origins in Central Asia, ca. 1331-1332
  • Slow rate of spread
  • Importance of Mongol Empire
  • Spreads from Tatars to Genoese colony of Caffa
  • From there to Europe in September 1347

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How Many People Died?
23
How Many People Died?
24
Burials at Givry, 1334-1348
25
Plague Mortality in Bombay Presidency, 1897-98
Locality Population Death Rate/1,000
Bombay 806,144 20.1
Poona 161,696 31.2
Karachi 97,009 24.1
Sholapur 61,564 35.0
Kale 4,431 104.9
Supne 2,068 102.5
Ibrampur 1,692 360.5
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Average Duration of Life Florence, 1276-1500
Years Average Life
1276-1300 31.4
1301-1325 40.1
1326-1348 37.3
1349-1375 36.5
1376-1400 18.0
1401-1425 24.4
1426-1450 27.9
1451-1475 41.1
1476-1500 38.9
29
How Many People Died? Conclusion
  • Ca. one-half of population dies
  • Population declines until ca. 1425, when
    stabilizes at one-third level of that of 1300
  • Remains at this low level until ca. 1475
  • Returns to level of 1300 around 1600

30
But Was It Plague?
31
But Was It Plague?
  • Two types of rat needed
  • Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) did not reach
    England until 1700s

32
But was it plague?
Rodent reservoir
33
But Was It Plague?
  • Two types of rat needed
  • Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) did not reach
    England until 1700s

34
But was it plague?
  • Plague a disease of open steppes, and/or warm
    countries, but
  • Spreads to Iceland and Greenland

35
  • No reports of dead rats
  • 40 day disease cycle, as opposed to 7-10 days for
    plague

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Or a Viral Hemorrhagic Fever?
  • Characterized by bleeding and vomiting of blood
  • Generalized necrosis
  • Affected domestic animals
  • Spread from human to human

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Population Movement at Prato
42
Consequences
  • Western Europe Golden Age of the Peasantry
  • Rents decline
  • Wages rise
  • Serfdom disappears in W. Europe

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Population Movements England
45
Consequences - 2
  • Intensifies political and social conflict
  • Seigneurial reaction
  • Peasant revolts/urban worker revolts
  • Increased competition among aristocrats for
    control of shrinking numbers of peasant, leading
    to
  • Increased civil war
  • Increased inter-state war
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