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Louisiana Purchase

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Louisiana Purchase 1803 I. The Louisiana Territory had belonged to the Spanish until 1802 when it was given to France in A secret treaty. a. Spain had given trade ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Louisiana Purchase


1
Louisiana Purchase
  • 1803

2
  • I. The Louisiana Territory had belonged to the
    Spanish until 1802 when it was given to France in
    A secret treaty.
  • a. Spain had given trade rights to The
    Mississippi and New Orleans in Pinckney's Treaty
    but now those rights were being cancelled, The
    Mississippi and the Port of New Orleans were
    critical to American trade in the West.
  • b. France according to Jefferson was a threat to
    America because of the colonial ideas of its
    emperor Napoleon
  • c. Jefferson sought to acquire the Port of New
    Orleans and Florida from France

3
  • d. Congress authorized 2,000,000 for purchase
  • 1. Jefferson authorized Robert Livingston to pay
    10,000,000 for New Orleans and West Florida
  • 2. Napoleon controlled his New World empire from
    Santo Domingo
  • 3. Slaves led by Toussaint Louverture staged a
    rebellion against the plantation owners and
    declared a republic

4
  • a. France sent troops that captured Louverture
    but could not regain control of the island and it
    became Haiti as the French were driven out
  • b. Napoleon now had little hopes for an empire in
    America and as costs rose in his war against
    Britain he chose to sell to America

5
  • 1. France offered all of Louisiana and New
    Orleans to the US for 15,000,000
  • 2. Monroe and Livingston posed the deal to
    Jefferson
  • 3. Jefferson was concerned whether he had the
    power to make such a purchase under the
    constitution.
  • a. He did so under the powers to create treaty -
    1803

6
New Acquisition
7
Slavery
  • Governing Louisiana was more difficult than
    acquiring it. Since the slave trade had yet to be
    abolished, there were large slave populations in
    several slave states. Because of this, there were
    widespread fears that American slaves would
    follow the example of those in Saint-Domingue,
    and revolt. Southerners wanted slavery legalized
    in Louisiana, so they could ship their slaves to
    the new territory and reduce the threat of future
    slave revolts. Jefferson agreed and allowed
    slavery in the acquired territory, which laid the
    foundation for the crisis of the union a half
    century later.

8
Statehood
  • Example set by Northwest ordinance to ban slavery
    is ignored
  • Missouri petitions for statehood

9
The Missouri Compromise
  • In 1819, a time of serious economic problems,
    President Monroe was faced with another crisis.
    Missouri was the first state to be carved out of
    land acquired through the Louisiana Purchase,
    which Monroe had helped negotiate in 1803. It was
    on the verge of being admitted to the Union at a
    time when there were 22 states. Eleven states
    allowed slavery and 11 did not. There was an
    argument in the U.S. Congress about whether
    Missouri should or should not allow slavery.

10
(No Transcript)
11
  • the Senate and House of Representatives worked
    out a deal that allowed Massachusetts'
    northernmost counties to apply for admission to
    the Union as a non-slave state called Maine while
    Missouri would be admitted as a slave state.

12
Senate equal
  • With the admission of Missouri and Maine to the
    Union, the number of slave states and non-slave
    states remained equal at 12 each, which prevented
    the South from having more representation in the
    Senate

13
  • In addition, slavery would be forbidden north of
    the latitude line that runs along the southern
    Missouri border for the remaining Louisiana
    Territory (36 o 30 )

14
Postponing the conflict
  • In the end, the Missouri Compromise led to the
    creation of a total of nine new states that would
    never allow slavery (out of a total of 14 states,
    or parts of states, that were carved out of land
    acquired through the Louisiana Purchase)

15
Excerpt from the Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • SEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That in all
    that territory ceded by France to the United
    States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies
    north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes
    north latitude, not included within the limits of
    the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and
    involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the
    punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall
    have been duly convicted, shall be, and is
    hereby, forever prohibited Provided always, That
    any person escaping from slavery...may be
    lawfully reclaimed and conveyed back to the
    person (slave owner)...
  • After the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, if a
    runaway slave was caught, they had to be sent
    back to their "owners" by law.

16
  • While the Missouri Compromise seemed to settle an
    issue at the time, its full impact still lay
    years in the future. The issue of slavery was far
    from settled, and further compromises and Supreme
    Court decisions would play a role in the great
    debates over it.
  • And while Thomas Jefferson, writing in retirement
    in 1820, had feared the Missouri Crisis would
    shatter the Union, his fears were not fully
    realized for another four decades, when the Civil
    War erupted and the slavery issue was ultimately
    settled.
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