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Should You Be A Vegetarian? Answers from nutrition science.

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None of us are immune to junk food!! Stocking the Vegetarian Pantry Look at the vegetarian foods you already have and the vegetarian meals you usually eat. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Should You Be A Vegetarian? Answers from nutrition science.


1
Should You Be A Vegetarian? Answers from
nutrition science.
  • Trulie Ankerberg-Nobis, M.S., R.D.
  • truliea_at_gmail.com

2
My personal story
3
My personal story
4
The Historical Four Food Groups
  • MEAT
  • MILK
  • BREAD
  • FRUITS VEGETABLES
  • Developed from industry pressures
    FoodPolitics.com

5
The NEW Four Food Groups developed by
PCRM
  • LEGUMES
  • GRAINS
  • VEGETABLES
  • FRUIT

6
Nutritional Adequacy of Vegan Diets
  • appropriately planned vegetarian diets are
    healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide
    health benefits in the prevention and treatment
    of certain diseases. Well-planned vegan and other
    types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all
    stages of the life cycle, including during
    pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and
    adolescence.
  • Position of the American Dietetic Association
  • and Dietitians of Canada Vegetarian Diets,
  • Journal of the American Dietetic Association,
    June 2003

7
The Power of Plant Foods
  • Fruits and vegetables reduced risk for
    cardiovascular disease, cancers, and other
    chronic diseases (such as macular degeneration
    and cataracts).
  • Legumes - sources of protein, fiber, and a
    variety of micronutrients and phytochemicals that
    may protect against disease.

8
The Power of Plant Foods
  • Nuts - lower risk for heart disease and lower
    mortality rates.
  • Whole-grains - reduced risk for heart disease,
    diabetes, high blood pressure, and stomach and
    colon cancers.

9
Heart Disease 1 Killer
  • Framingham Heart Study
  • 150 mg/dl cholesterol
  • 1 incr in cholesterol 2 incr in risk
  • Ornish Heart Study
  • Can reverse disease with low fat veg diet, stress
    reduction and exercise
  • Dangerous foods saturated fats and cholesterol,
    trans fats
  • Major sources animal foods and processed foods
  • Highest source of saturated fat in American diet
    dairy products
  • Only animal foods have cholesterol

10
Cancer 2 Killer
  • ESTIMATED PERCENTAGES OF CANCER
  • DUE TO SELECTED FACTORS
  • Diet 35-60
  • Tobacco 30
  • Alcohol 3
  • Radiation 3
  • Air and Water Pollution 1-5
  • Medications 2
  • These figures are rough estimates based on data
    from Cancer Rates and Risks, National Cancer
    Institute (Washington, DC 1985), and R. Doll and
    R. Peto, Journal of the National Cancer
    Institute, 1981, 66(6)1191-1308. Other factors
    may also play a role in certain forms of cancer
    and are not included in this table. Categories
    may overlap. For example, both tobacco and
    alcohol contribute to esophageal cancer.

11
Cancer and diet
  • Foods rich in fat and oils affect digestive
    cancers and sex-hormone cancers
  • E.g. colon, rectum, prostate, breast
  • The difference between a low-fat vegetarian diet
    and an omnivorous one 1500 g fat/month.
  • Protective dietary components
  • Fibers from whole grains and colon and rectum
    cancers
  • Fiber helps to rid the body of excess hormones
    protecting against prostate and breast cancer
  • There is no fiber in any animal product
  • Plant nutrients Beta-carotene, vitamin C

12
Vegetarians and disease
  • Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional
    benefits, including lower levels of saturated
    fat, cholesterol and animal protein,as well as
    higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium,
    potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as
    vitamin C and E and phytochemicals. Vegetarians
    have been reported to have lower body mass
    indices than nonvegetarians as well as lower
    rates of death from ischemic heart disease also
    lower blood cholesterol levels lower blood
    pressure lower rates of hypertension, type 2
    diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.
  • Position of the American Dietetic Association and
    Dietitians of Canada Vegetarian Diets, Journal
    of the American Dietetic Association, June 2003

13
What about getting enough protein?
  • Plants the source of all protein on earth!
  • Cows did not eat other cows for protein!
  • Green vegetables
  • There are nine essential amino acids we need to
    obtain from the foods we eat
  • As long as you're meeting your energy needs and
    eating a varied diet, you'll get enough protein

14
Protein Sources
  • Beans
  • Whole Grains
  • Veggie Burgers
  • Nuts/ Nut Butters
  • Tofu/ Tempeh
  • Soy Milk

15
But isnt fish healthy?
  • Although fatty fish, compared to red meat, has
    been associated with less cardiovascular risk,
    fish and shellfish often contain mercury and
    other environmental toxins
  • Affects central nervous system, cardiovascular
    health, reproduction, immune function and are
    possibly carcinogenic
  • Other nutritional problems
  • Contribute to already high intakes of animal
    protein
  • High protein diets associated with increased risk
    for kidney problems, osteoporosis and
    complications with diabetes
  • Contribute to saturated fat and cholesterol
    intake

16
Safer N-3 fatty acid sources
  • Flax seed and flaxseed oil
  • Walnuts
  • Soybeans, tofu, and soybean oil
  • Canola oil
  • Leafy greens and other vegetables
  • Beans
  • Whole grains

17
But isnt milk important for health?
  • Milk is species specific- For example, Dogs don't
    drink goat's milk
  • Many people dont drink milk because they are
    lactose intolerant.
  • 70 of worlds population
  • Lactose intolerance is a natural process that
    occurs after an infant stops breast-feeding

18
Plant Calcium Vs. Cows Milk Calcium
  • Plant sources contain
  • Fiber
  • Phytochemicals
  • Vitamin K
  • Salicylic acid
  • Plant protein
  • Cows milk contains
  • Nothing from plant column
  • Saturated fat
  • Cholesterol
  • Animal protein
  • Lactose
  • Hormones
  • Contaminants

19
Where will I get my calcium from?
  • Plant foods are good sources of calcium
  • Absorption rate of calcium from plants compared
    with cows milk
  • Green vegetables 52-64
  • Cows milk 32

20
Mg Calcium in 100 Calories of
Bok choy 1,055
Turnip greens 921
Collard greens 559
Kale 455
Romaine lettuce 257
Tofu 236
Milk 194
Fish 38
T-bone steak 5
Pork chop 2
21
Recommendations for Bone Health
  • Get some physical activity!
  • Achieve positive calcium balance by avoiding
    calcium depleters
  • animal protein
  • high sodium foods
  • caffeine
  • refined sugars
  • excessive vitamin A supplements
  • Meet other nutrient needs protein, potassium,
    vitamins D, K, and C, magnesium, boron
  • High intake fruits and vegetables

22
Vitamin B12
  • Only found in animal products
  • Its present in the soil, so we used to be able
    to get B12 from vegetables that were unwashed

23
Where Vegans Should Be Cautious
  • Ensure an adequate intake of Vitamin B12 and
    Omega 3 fatty acids
  • Other nutrients that can be low Vitamin D, some
    minerals
  • Make whole plant foods the staples of your diet
  • Not french fries, fried foods, processed foods,
    sugary foods
  • Dont smoke, get some exercise, keep health body
    weight

24
Vitamin B12
  • What can vegans do since they dont eat animal
    products?
  • Fortified soymilks and breakfast cereals.
  • Multi-Vitamin
  • Recommended intake
  • 2 mcg/ day

25
But isnt a diet with fortified foods unnatural
and not optimal?
  • Most people do not consume a natural diet
  • Times change so new foods with fortified
    nutrients are created
  • E.g. vitamin D and living near the equator
  • Fortified foods and supplements allow for more
    people to meet all their nutrient needs
  • We should remember the rest of world when making
    diet choices

26
Where omnivores should be cautious
  • Study found that omnivores are often deficient in
    7 nutrients
  • Calcium, iodine, vitamin C, vitamin E, fiber,
    folate, and magnesium
  • Most people do not consume enough fruits and
    vegetables
  • Most consumed vegetable in US potatoes as french
    fries or chips ketchup as a vegetable the
    least nutritious
  • Study found that vegetarian teens diets
    contained more nutrients than omnivores

27
So what should a vegan diet look like? Often,
much like an omnivorous diet!
28
BREAKFAST 1
  • 1 cup oatmeal with cinnamon and raisins and 1/2
    cup fortified soymilk
  • 1 slice toast with 1 tablespoon almond butter and
    jam
  • 1/2 grapefruit

29
BREAKFAST 2
  • 3 oatmeal pancakes with applesauce topping
  • 1 glass of calcium-fortified orange juice
  • Fresh fruit

30
BREAKFAST 3
  • Raisin Bran with soymilk and sliced banana
  • Toast with peanut butter and jam
  • Orange juice

31
LUNCH 1
  • Whole wheat pita stuffed with hummus, sliced
    tomatoes, and lettuce
  • Carrot sticks
  • Fresh Fruit
  • Pretzels

32
LUNCH 2
  • Bean burritos black beans in corn tortillas,
    topped with chopped lettuce, tomatoes, and salsa
  • Spinach salad with tahini-lemon dressing
  • Fresh Fruit
  • Fortified juice or soymilk

33
LUNCH 3
  • Salad of mixed greens with assorted vegetables, ½
    cup beans, croutons, and low-fat salad dressing
  • Whole grain bagel
  • Fresh fruit

34
DINNER 1
  • Steamed vegetables and cannelini
  • beans over pasta with marinara sauce
  • 1 cup steamed collard greens drizzled with lemon
    juice
  • Baked apple

35
DINNER 2
  • Chinese stir-fry over brown rice tofu chunks,
    broccoli, pea pods, water chestnuts, and Chinese
    cabbage (bok choy)
  • Cantaloupe chunks drizzled with fresh lime juice
  • Fortified juice or rice milk

36
DINNER 3
  • Veggie chili over
  • Baked sweet potato
  • Side salad
  • ½ cup sorbet
  • Fortified juice

37
HEALTHY SNACKS
  • Banana soymilk shake
  • (Fresh Samantha for example)
  • Fresh or dried fruit
  • Popcorn
  • Granola Bars
  • Nuts
  • Carrots/ Celery and hummus

38
Making the switch! www.TryVeg.com is helpful
39
Choosing the approach Gradual or Cold- Tofu?
  • Overnight Approach
  • works best when you've done your research,
  • are surrounded by support,
  • are free from other major life distractions.

40
Choosing the approach Gradual or Cold- Tofu?
  • Gradual Approach eating habits are more likely
    to stick.
  • Begin by
  • learning some basic vegetarian nutrition,
  • grocery shopping and stocking your kitchen with
    veg. staples,
  • learning about meal planning and new recipes
  • Support network like minded friends and
    relatives becoming part of a community with
    these interests

41
Choosing the approach Gradual or Cold- Tofu?
  • Begin by cutting out the meat
  • Try having meatless meals two to three times a
    week.
  • Begin with favorites such as spaghetti with
    tomato sauce, vegetarian pizza, bean burritos,
    etc.
  • Try some veggie convenience foods
  • Veggie dogs, garden burgers, hummus and pita
    bread, bean dip with veggies

42
Avoid the Coke and French fries Trap
  • Be Careful! Be Healthy!
  • None of us are immune to junk food!!

43
Stocking the Vegetarian Pantry
  • Look at the vegetarian foods you already have and
    the vegetarian meals you usually eat.
  • You probably already eat many vegetarian or vegan
    meals, or meals that could easily be made
    vegetarian.

44
Stocking the Vegetarian Pantry
  • Food Group
  • Bread, grains, cereals
  • Product
  • Whole grain mixes pancakes, baking mixes
  • Bulk grains rice, barley, pasta, oats
  • Whole grain breakfast cereals
  • Breads, rolls, muffins, bagels, English muffins,
    tortillas
  • Frozen waffles and low-fat muffins

45
Stocking the Vegetarian Pantry
  • Food Group
  • Legumes
  • Product
  • Bean or lentil soup
  • Black bean burritos or tacos
  • Canned beans and Vegetarian baked beans 
  • Tofu

46
Stocking the Vegetarian Pantry
  • Food Group
  • Fruits and Vegetables
  • Meat substitutes
  • Dairy Substitutes
  • Product
  • All kinds and all varieties
  • Veggie burger patties
  • Veggie sausage
  • Soy milks
  • Soy cheeses

47
Stocking the Vegetarian Pantry
  • Food Group
  • Convenience foods
  • Product
  • Morningstar Farms Stuffed Sandwiches
  • Mock Chicken patties
  • Frozen veggie pizza
  • Soup in a cup

48
Top 10 Vegetarian Convenience Foods
  • 1. Soymilk
  • 2. Powdered vegetarian egg replacer
  • 3. Vegetarian burger patties and hot dogs
  • 4. Whole grain breakfast cereals
  • 5. Tempeh and Tofu
  • 6. Canned beans
  • 7. Frozen entrees
  • 8. Hummus and Peanut Butter
  • 9. Instant soups
  • 10. Tomato sauce

49
For more information
  • Online
  • The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
    (PCRM) http//www.pcrm.org

50
Summary of nutrition science For more
information see
  • Online
  • The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
    (PCRM) http//www.pcrm.org
  • The Cancer Project http//www.cancerproject.org/
  • www.TryVeg.com
  • www.TryVegetarian.com

51
For more information
  • Books
  • Complete Idiots Guide to Being Vegetarian by
    Suzanne Havala, MS, RD
  • Becoming Vegan
  • by Brenda Davis, RD
  • Vesanto Melina, MS, RD
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