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Biomedical Engineering

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Biomedical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Eric Lee, John Harrison, Albert Kwansa, Jacqueline Wong, Miguel Benson Definition of BME Development and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biomedical Engineering


1
Biomedical Engineering
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Eric Lee, John Harrison, Albert Kwansa,
  • Jacqueline Wong, Miguel Benson

2
Definition of BME
  • Development and manufacture of prostheses,
    medical devices, diagnostic devices, drugs and
    other therapies
  • Combines expertise of engineering with medical
    needs for the progress of health care

3
BME Overview
4
Biomechanics
  • Application of mechanical principles to the study
    of human body movements
  • Muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments
  • Anatomy, microstructure
  • Static and dynamic analyses of force profile
  • Stress, strain, coordination, power output

5
Biomechanics
  • Example broken leg

Anatomy
Microstructure
http//academic.wsc.edu/faculty/jatodd1/351/tibia_
fibula.jpg
http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34
/Illu_compact_spongy_bone.jpg
6
Biomechanics
  • Fracture Schematics
  • Behave like cement
  • Good in compression
  • Poor in tension
  • Low tolerance for torsion

Butterfly Cut
Fragment
7
X-ray
  • Electromagnetic wave and perform radiation
  • Radiation pass through patient and some are being
    absorbed
  • Image are created on detector by radiation that
    pass through the subject

8
X-ray Applications
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Skeletal system
  • Soft tissue (e.g. lung)

9
Ultrasonography
  • A sound wave is produced.
  • Sound wave is reflected and forming echo from
    layers between different tissues.
  • Sound wave is changed to electrical pulses for
    image production.

10
Ultrasonography Applications
  • Muscle and soft tissue
  • Obstetric sonography

http//zoot.radiology.wisc.edu/
www.medical.philips.com
11
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  • Polarize (align spin) of H2 atoms in body
  • Disrupt spins at one slice of body
  • Measure energy given off as atoms realign
  • Detects concentration of H2 atoms

12
MRI Application
  • Soft tissue imaging
  • Use of contrast
  • Combined with CT info

13
CT (Computed Tomography)
  • Scanner looks much like MRI scanner
  • Takes many X-rays around body
  • Properties much like X-ray
  • Image from density of material
  • Typically used for skeletal imaging

14
CT Application
  • Form 2-D and 3-D images from X-rays
  • Can use contrasts as well to enhance image of
    soft tissue

15
Biomaterials
  • Any foreign material that comes into contact with
    a biological system
  • Diverse area of Biomedical Engineering
  • Cancer drug delivery
  • Tissue engineering
  • Cell implantation

16
Micro-encapsulation
  • Challenge Re-establish testosterone level
  • Solution Insert testosterone producing cells

17
Cell Viability
  • Cell viability and function must be preserved
    long term.
  • Micro-encapsulation provides a defense and
    preserves cell function.

18
Hydrogel
Cell
  • Capsule material
  • Chemical composition
  • Physical characteristics

Hydrogel
Polyethylene Glycol HO-(CH2-CH2-O)n-H
19
Microcapsule Parameters
Size exclusion via mesh size
Microcapsule Size
Biocompatibility
Degradation
20
Tissue Engineering (TE)
  • TE involves the development of biological
    substitutes to restore or replace lost tissue
    function (Langer and Vacanti, 1993).

21
TE Motivation
  • Divergence between the supply and demand of organ
    tissue replacements.
  • Current methods ? low supply, immune rejection,
    and inability to repair and develop.
  • Major goals of TE
  • Provide living biological replacements
  • Tissue physiology pathology
  • Pharmaceutical testing

22
TE Approach Cell Source
Cell Donors
Expand
Harvest
23
Cells Scaffold
24
Cells Scaffold Bioreactor
Bioreactor
25
Growth Factors Scaffold
26
TE Range
Metabolic
Structural
Liver, Pancreas, Kidney
Bone, Cartilage, Tendon
Muscle
Skin
Nerve
27
TE Examples
Cardiac TE heart valve, myocardium Metabolic TE liver, bladder, pancreas
Musculoskeletal TE bone, cartilage Neural TE nerve guidance channel for PNS
http//www.chir.unizh.ch/cardio/cardiotext/tissuee
ngineering.html (Hoerstrup et al. Circulation
2002)
Proximal
Distal
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageWoven_bone_matr
ix.jpg
28
Common Post-graduate Paths
Bachelors Degree
  • Professional Schools
  • Medical School
  • Dental School
  • Law School
  • Business School

Graduate School
Masters Degree
Combined Programs Medical Graduate School
(M.D./Ph.D.)
Doctorate
Industry
Academia
29
Questions
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