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Food categories and composition information

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Title: Food categories and composition information


1
Food categories and composition information
  • 14 categories defined by USDA as commodities
  • red meat, poultry, fish/shellfish, eggs, dairy,
    beverage milks, fats/oils, fruits, vegetables,
    peanuts/tree nuts, flour/cereal products, caloric
    sweeteners, coffee, cocoa
  • these include some processed foods
  • Food Guide Pyramid (1992) defined 6 categories
    from a nutritional pov now 5 with MyPlate
    (2011)
  • Bread, cereal, rice, pasta (grains)
  • Fruit group
  • Vegetable group
  • Milk, yogurt, cheese group (dairy)
  • Meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs nuts group
    (protein)
  • Fats, oils sweets (no recommendation)

2
Food Guide Pyramid (1992)
3
New for 2011 at http//www.choosemyplate.gov/food
-groups/
New nutritional guidelines five categories
recommended for balanced daily consumption Can
click on each category for description of whats
included, how much to eat, health/nutritional
benefits
4
Where to find composition information
  • Composition of recognized nutrients in a given
    food/beverage can be found in USDA National
    Nutrient Database http//www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foo
    dcomp/search/
  • To search the content of specific constituent
    across many foods, access nutrient lists at
    http//www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid22
    114
  • Databases on certain foods like flavonoids that
    are extensively researched are re-released
    periodically http//www.ars.usda.gov/Services/doc
    s.htm?docid6231
  • Manufactured products are required to use
    Nutrition Facts labeling
  • Data given per serving
  • Total fat, carbohydrate, protein, cholesterol,
    sodium, vitamins minerals by weight RDA
  • May list other constituents but not a complete
    list

5
Where to find composition information
  • Searchable nutrition facts database for produce
    and products at http//www.nutritiondata.com/
  • For more specific information on phytochemical
    composition
  • USDA databases (recognized nutrients)
  • Scientific literature (all phytochemicals)
  • AGRICOLA database (link from UMD library site),
    can search National Agricultural Library
  • Scifinder Scholar database searches CAS online
    for chemistry literature
  • Pubmed studies on health/nutrition
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

6
Nutritional Health Studies and Industry News
  • Nutraingredients-USA nutrition supplements
    news (http//www.nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Food Navigator food beverage news
    Europe(http//www.foodnavigator.com/)
  • USA (http//www.foodnavigator-usa.com/)
  • Can search by topic, ingredient, health conditions

7
2 slices Dominos deep-dish cheese pizza, as
reported by NutritionData.com
8
A word about organic foods
  • Certification requirements and farming practices
    vary worldwide but generally
  • Grown without synthetic pesticides/herbicides or
    fertilizers
  • Processed without irradiation or chemical food
    additives
  • Not genetically modified
  • For animal products, pesticide-free feed and no
    antibiotics or growth hormones

9
But are organic foods better for you?
  • 2012 study Smith-Spangler, et al, Annals of
    Internal Medicine 157 348-366
  • Meta-analysis of 17 human and 223 studies of
    nutrient contaminant levels in foods between
    1966 and 2011
  • Conclusion published literature lacks strong
    evidence that organic foods are significantly
    more nutritious, but they may reduce exposure to
    pesticide residues and antibiotic-resistant
    bacteria.

10
Natural food constituents classified by chemistry
physiological roles
  • Carbohydrates energy storage
  • Lipids (fat/oil) energy structural
  • Amino acids and proteins structural
    regulatory
  • Lipoproteins, glycoproteins, etcspecialized
    roles
  • Water
  • Vitamins and co-factors - catalysis
  • Minerals
  • Plant secondary metabolites or phytochemicals
  • Roles in plants are many defense, propagation
  • Can be classified into subcategories based on
    biosynthetic pathway and structure
  • structural similarities exist among members of a
    genus
  • (e.g. Vaccinium berries)

11
Cereals, grains
  • Corn, rice, wheat, barley, rye, oats, millet,
    sorghum, etc
  • Kernels (seeds) used (endosperm, bran germ)
  • http//www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/grains.ht
    ml
  • Contain primarily carbohydrates
  • simple sugars
  • disaccharides
  • polysaccharides amylose/amylopectin (starch) and
    cellulose (undigestible fiber)
  • Fiber may be insoluble or soluble in water,
    structurally complex molecules
  • Ratio of simplecomplex carbs varies
  • Protein, fat and mineral content varies
  • Vitamins/minerals may be added back if lost in
    processing
  • Plant proteins are generally deficient in lysine
    methionine

from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
12
Essential amino acids
  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine

Cannot be synthesized by human body, therefore
must be included in diet Complete
proteins Body doesnt store a.a.s to a great
extent, needs constant supply
from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
13
Meat, poultry seafood
  • Its got a lot of protein and saturated fat but
    it can be tasty ?
  • Furnishes all of essential amino acids
  • B vitamins, iron other minerals too.
  • Seafood is a bit more interesting from a health
    p.o.v. due to omega-3 fatty acid content in some
    fishstay tuned!

from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
14
Fruits vegetables
  • Whats the difference? Sugar content?
  • Botanically speaking, a fruit is the ripened
    ovary of a plant, contains the seeds
  • A vegetable is any other edible plant part leaf,
    shoot, root, tuber, bulb, flower or stem
  • Tomatoes squash are fruit!
  • Composed mainly of water, carbohydrates, but high
    in vitamin content (esp. A C)
  • Secondary metabolite/phytochemical content is
    diverse
  • USDA website lists categories of fruits and
    vegetables, some health benefits
  • http//www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/vegetable
    s.html
  • http//www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/fruits.ht
    ml

from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
15
Legumes nuts
  • Legumes are edible seeds, pods of certain
    flowering plants
  • Mainly from families Leguminosae, Fabaceae
  • Beans, lentils, soybeans, peas, peanuts
  • Tree nuts
  • Are actually fruits
  • Include almonds, walnuts, pecans, macadamias,
    etc. from various families
  • Both legumes and nuts
  • Have a high protein content compared to other
    plant-based foods (common nuts range from 8-38 g
    protein/cup)
  • Legumes are deficient in lysine
  • Carbohydrate composition may contain substantial
    fiber
  • Good source of minerals
  • Nuts are higher in fat, but mainly unsaturated

from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
16
Dairy products
  • Derived primarily from cows milk but some other
    sources as well
  • Whole milk composition 88 water, 3.3 protein,
    3.3 fat, 4.7 carbs
  • pH 6.6, high calcium content
  • Milkfats primarily saturated but contain
    fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,K
  • Major carb lactose
  • intolerance caused by lactase deficiency
  • Major proteins casein whey
  • casein is coagulated out as curd by lowering milk
    pH to 4.6 with rennin, an enzyme used in
    cheesemaking
  • whey proteins can be pptd out by heat, isolated
    by filtration
  • whey used as supplement and gelling agent

from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
17
Beverages
  • No one category
  • Main ingredient is water
  • Alcohol
  • Sweeteners
  • sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, artificial
  • o Brix wt sucrose
  • (g sucrose/100 g sample)
  • measured by refractometry
  • flavor depends on Brixacid ratio
  • Nutrients?
  • Phytochemicals?

Water content of selected beverages Club soda
100 Iced tea 100 Light beer 95 Beer 92 Cola
89 Orange juice 88 Red wine 88 Vodka (90
proof) 62 From Murano, Understanding Food
Science Technology (2003).
from Murano, P. Understanding Food Science and
Technology, Wadsworth, 2003.
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