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Module 13 Mental Illness


Module 13 Mental Illness Mindy Menn, M.S. * Common Mental Health Problems Scientists currently think that, like heart disease, mental illnesses are complex and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Module 13 Mental Illness

Module 13 Mental Illness
  • Mindy Menn, M.S.

Common Mental Health Problems
  • Scientists currently think that, like heart
    disease, mental illnesses are complex and
    probably result from a combination of genetic,
    environmental, psychological, and developmental
  • Many mental disorders co-exist

Major Types of Mental Illness
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Depressive Disorders
  • Psychotic Disorders

  • Anxiety Disorders affect about 40 million
    American adults age 18 years and older (about
    18) in a given year.
  • Anxiety disorders commonly occur along with other
    mental or physical illnesses, including alcohol
    or substance abuse, which may mask anxiety
    symptoms or make them worse.
  • Effective therapies for anxiety disorders are
  • If you think you have an anxiety disorder, you
    should seek information and treatment right away.
  • Each anxiety disorder has different symptoms, but
    all the symptoms cluster around excessive,
    irrational fear and dread.

Panic Disorder
  • Panic disorder affects about 6 million American
    adults and is twice as common in women as men.2
    Panic attacks often begin in late adolescence or
    early adulthood,2 but not everyone who
    experiences panic attacks will develop panic
    disorder. Many people have just one attack and
    never have another. The tendency to develop panic
    attacks appears to be inherited.3

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • People with (OCD) have persistent, upsetting
    thoughts (obsessions) and use rituals
    (compulsions) to control the anxiety these
    thoughts produce.
  • For example, if people are obsessed with germs or
    dirt, they may develop a compulsion to wash their
    hands over and over again. If they develop an
    obsession with intruders, they may lock and
    relock their doors many times before going to

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • (PTSD) develops after a terrifying ordeal that
    involved physical harm or the threat of physical
  • PTSD was first brought to public attention in
    relation to war veterans, but it can result from
    a variety of traumatic incidents.

Social Phobia (or social anxiety disorder)
  • Social phobia, also called social anxiety
    disorder, is diagnosed when people become
    overwhelmingly anxious and excessively self
    conscious in everyday social situations.

Specific Phobias
  • A specific phobia is an intense, irrational fear
    of something that actually poses little or no
    threat. Some of the more common specific phobias
    are heights, escalators, tunnels, highway
    driving, water, flying, dogs, spiders, and
    injuries involving blood.
  • Specific phobias affect around 19.2 million
    American adults1 and are twice as common in women
    as men.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  • People with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) go
    through the day filled with exaggerated worry and
    tension, even though there is little or nothing
    to provoke it.
  • GAD is diagnosed when a person worries
    excessively about a variety of everyday problems
    for at least 6 months.

Depressive Disorders
  • This next 4 slides address depressive disorders
    and conditions that co-exist with depressive

Major Depressive Disorder
  • Major depression is characterized by a
    combination of symptoms that interfere with a
    persons ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and
    enjoy once-pleasurable activities.

Psychotic Depression
  • Psychotic Depression is observed when a severe
    depressive illness is accompanied by some form of
    psychosis, such as a break with reality,
    hallucinations, and delusions.

Postpartum Depression
  • Is diagnosed if a new mother develops a major
    depressive episode within one month after

Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • Is characterized by the onset of a depressive
    illness during the winter months, when there is
    less natural sunlight.
  • The depression generally lifts during spring and

Additional Information about Depression
  • There is no single known cause of depression.
  • Research indicates that magnetic resonance
    imaging (MRI), have shown that the brains of
    people who have depression look different than
    those of people without depression.
  • In addition, trauma, loss of a loved one, a
    difficult relationship, or any stressful
    situation may trigger a depressive episode.
  • Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress
    disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder,
    panic disorder, social phobia and generalized
    anxiety disorder, often accompany depression.

Psychotic Disorders
  • Psychotic disorders are mental disorders in which
    the personality is seriously disorganized and a
    person's contact with reality is impaired. During
    a psychotic episode a person is confused about
    reality and often experiences delusions and/or

  • Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling
    brain disorder
  • About 1 percent of Americans have this illness.
  • People with the disorder may hear voices other
    people dont hear.
  • People with schizophrenia may not make sense when
    they talk.
  • Families and society are affected by
    schizophrenia too.
  • Treatment helps relieve many symptoms of
    schizophrenia, but most people who have the
    disorder cope with symptoms throughout their

Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Positive symptoms
  • Hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders,
    movement disorders
  • Negative symptoms
  • Cognitive symptoms

  • Schizophrenia affects men and women equally.
  • It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups
    around the world.
  • Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions
    usually start between ages 16 and 30.

  • What causes schizophrenia?
  • Experts think schizophrenia is caused by several
    factors including genes and environmental
  • How is schizophrenia treated?
  • Treatments include antipsychotic medications and
    various psychosocial treatments.

Getting Help for Mental Health Issues
  • Psychologists
  • Psychiatrists
  • Family Doctors
  • Religious leaders/counselors
  • Mental Health Counselors

  • Psychiatrists begin their careers in medical
    school. After earning their MD, they go on to
    four years of residency training in mental
    health, typically at a hospital's psychiatric
  • As medical doctors, psychiatrists can do what
    most psychologists in the United States cannot
    They can prescribe drugs.

  • Psychologists go through five to seven years of
    academic graduate study, culminating in a
    doctorate degree.
  • Licensing requirements for psychologists vary
    from state to state, but at least a one- or
    two-year internship is required to apply for a
    license to practice psychology.

  • Both kinds of professionals treat people with
    problems that vary widely by degree and type,
    from mild anxiety to schizophrenia. Both can
    practice psychotherapy, and both can do research.

University of Florida Counseling and Wellness
  • Individual Counseling
  • Group Counseling
  • Couples Counseling
  • Biofeedback
  • Psychiatric Consultation 
  • Testing
  • Consultation 
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