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Electrical Safety Program Refresher Training

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Standard for Electrical Safety in the ... The Hazards of Electricity Electrical Shock Burns Arc Blast Arc Flash Electrical Shock Short Term Effects Heart ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electrical Safety Program Refresher Training


1
Electrical Safety ProgramRefresher Training
  • In Compliance with NFPA 70E, 2009

Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
2
Definition of Hot Work
  • Any work on electrical equipment, circuits,
    devices, systems, or any other energized part(s)
    where an employee is required to deliberately, or
    could accidentally, place any part of his body,
    tool or material into or around such electrical
    devices where the voltage has been deemed to be
    in excess of 50 volts.

3
Why 50 Volts?
  • OSHA and NFPA 70E have determined that the
    threshold for dangerous electrical potential is
    50 volts.
  • WHY?
  • The average human has 10,000 ohms of resistance
    in our skin.
  • Currents of .005 amperes can be fatal.
  • Ohms law 50 volts / 10000 ohms .005 A

4
Study of Electrical Accidents
  • Study was done base on serious electrical
    accidents that occurred to professional
    electricians during the discharge of their
    professional duties.
  • An electrical accident was defined as an accident
    that was caused by contact or close proximity
    with electrical energy that was discharged in a
    manner not compliant with the circuit or systems
    design.

5
Study of Electrical Accidents
  • A serious accident was defined as any accident
    that resulted in 6 months lost time up to and
    including a fatality.
  • There were 178 accidents that fell into this
    category in 1998.

6
Category Break Down
  • Distribution Equipment 4
  • Overhead Power Lines 3
  • Devices Mounted Below 8 31
  • Devices Mounted Above 8 59
  • Other Accidents 3

7
Interesting Statistics
  • 90 of the accidents occurred while doing every
    day electrical tasks
  • 81 of the accidents occurred to electricians
    with 8 plus years of experience.
  • Ask yourself why the majority of these serious
    accidents occurred to experienced electricians.

8
The Hazards of Electricity
  • Electrical Shock
  • Burns
  • Arc Blast
  • Arc Flash

9
Electrical Shock
  • Short Term Effects
  • Heart Failure
  • External Burns
  • Internal Burn
  • Cellular Degradation
  • Autonomic System Failure
  • Ventricular Fibrillation
  • Muscle Contractions
  • Long Term Effects
  • Nervous system disorders
  • Heart Damage
  • Heat Murmur
  • Brain Chemical Imbalance
  • Muscle Ticks
  • Muscle Damage

10
Effects of Current on the Body
  • Five primary factors affect the severity of the
    shock a person receives when he or she is a
    part of an electrical circuit
  • Amount of current flowing through the body
    (measured in amperes).
  • Path of the current through the body.
  • Length of time the body is in the circuit.
  • Contraction position of the heart
  • Chemical cycle of the body

11
Safety BASICs
TM
12
Other Factors
  • The voltage of the current.
  • The presence of moisture in the environment.
  • The general health of the person prior to the
    shock
  • The resistance of the person shocked

13
Safety BASICs
TM
Shock (Resistance Table)

14
Effects of Current
  • Current level (in milliamperes) and Probable
    effect on human body
  • 1 mA Perception level. Slight tingling sensation.
    Still dangerous under certain conditions.
  • 5 mA Slight shock felt not painful but
    disturbing. Average individual can let go.
    However, strong involuntary reactions to shocks
    in this range may lead to injuries. Ventricular
    fibrillation can occur at this level.
  • 6-30 mA Painful shock, muscular control is lost.
    This is called the freezing current or "let-go"
    range.
  • 50-150 mA Extreme pain, respiratory arrest,
    severe muscular contractions. Individual cannot
    let go. Death is possible.
  • 1000-4300 mA Ventricular fibrillation (the
    rhythmic pumping action of the heart ceases.)
    will occur. Muscular contraction and nerve damage
    occur. Death is most likely.
  • 10,000 mA Cardiac arrest, severe burns and death
    almost certain.

15
Energized Work
  • Is usually preformed on equipment that is not
    protected by GFCIs.
  • Even a 15 ampere circuit break will not trip
    until an overload of 15001 milliamperes is felt
    in the human body.
  • Far Beyond the Survival Current.

16
Types of Burns
  • First-degree burns include only the outer layer
    of skin. The skin may be red. The skin may also
    hurt when touched. These are mild burns and
    usually heal in a few days.
  • Second-degree burns are deeper and more severe.
    Blisters may form on the burned area. The skin
    feels very tender when touched. This burn takes
    about 2 weeks to heal.
  • Third-degree burns are the deepest and most
    dangerous. The skin is tough or leathery. It may
    look white, brown, black, or red. You may not
    feel anything when the burned skin is touched

17
Effects of Electrical Burns
  • Immediate Effects
  • Pain
  • Deformity
  • Nerve Damage
  • Oral Cavity Damage
  • Genital Damage
  • Long Term Effects
  • Bone Damage
  • Nerve Damage
  • Organ Failure
  • Teeth and Gum Failure

18
Arc Blast and Flash
  • The third hazard of electricity is the most
    powerful and dangerous, yet the least talked
    about in electrical circles.
  • It was not officially recognized until 1995.
  • It was not widely studied until 1997.
  • We now understand it very well, perhaps, too
    well.

19
Arc Blast
  • What is an electrical arc.
  • Current flowing through an area that was once
    filled with air.
  • What causes an arc? HEAT
  • Electrical conductors coming into contact and
    breaking contact
  • Electrical conductors coming into close contact
  • Environmental conditions

20
Effects of Arc Blast
  • An electrical arc burns at between 20,000 and
    32,000 degrees F.
  • That is twice the center of a nuclear explosion.
  • That is four times the surface temperature of the
    sun
  • The average electrical arc lasts for 4-6 cycles
    from beginning to end.

21
Expansion of Material
  • Matter changes shape with temperature as it goes
    from solid to liquid to gaseous forms.
  • Water expands 4 times when it goes from liquid to
    gaseous form.
  • Copper expands nearly 67,000 times in volume when
    it goes from solid to gaseous form.
  • This happens in less than a 10th of a second.

22
Shock Wave
  • Due to this expansion of material, a shock wave
    that measures approximately 600 lbs of pressure
    per square inch moves outward from the arc.
  • Anyone in this blast area will be moved out of
    the blast area, forcefully.

23
Cooper Bussman Studies
  • Cooper Bussman and many other companies have done
    extensive testing of arc blasts since 1997.
  • The following slides demonstrate the power of an
    arc blast in a standard piece of equipment.

24
Electrical Arc
Molten Metal
35,000 F
Pressure Waves
Sound Waves
Shrapnel
Copper Vapor Solid to Vapor Expands by 67,000
times
Hot Air-Rapid Expansion
Intense Light
25
Personnel Hazards Associated with Arc Flash
  • Heat Burns Ignition of Materials
    Arc temperature of 35,000 ºF
    Molten metal, copper vapor, heated air
  • Second Degree Burn Threshold
  • 80 ºC / 175 ºF (0.1 sec), 2nd degree burn
  • Third Degree Burn Threshold
  • 96 ºC / 205 ºF (0.1 sec), 3rd degree burn
  • Intense Light
  • Damage eyes cataracts

26
Personnel Hazards Associated with Arc Flash
  • Pressures From Expansion of Metals Air
  • Eardrum Rupture Threshold
  • 720 lbs/ft2
  • Lung Damage - Threshold
  • 1728 - 2160 lbs/ft2
  • Shrapnel
  • Flung Across Room or From Ladder/Bucket

27
IEEE/PCIC NFPA 70E
Arc Flash Hazard
28
Arc Flash Hazard
  • Following are some of the tests run by IEEE Ad
    Hoc Safety Committee
  • All of the devices used for this testing were
    applied according to their listed ratings

29
Setup Area For Tests
  • A standard electrical room set up
  • The test will be performed on a relatively low
    hazard area.
  • Not the switchgear
  • 30A disconnect

30
Close-up of Test Area
Arc-Flash
31
22.6 KA Symmetrical Available Fault Current _at_
480V, 3 Phase
Test Info
6 cycle STD 640A OCPD Non Current Limiting with
Short Time Delay
Set _at_ 6 cycle opening
Fault Initiated on Line Side of 30A Fuse
30A RK-1 Current Limiting Fuse
Size 1 Starter
32
TEST
33
TEST Arc Blast Begins
34
TEST Molten Copper
35
TEST Copper vapor leads to a second blast in
gutter
36
TEST Second blast fire ball
37
TEST Metal, copper and PVC continue to burn
38
TEST Room enveloped in toxic smoke
39
22.6 KA Symmetrical Available Fault Current _at_
480V, 3 Phase
Results Test
640A OCPD Non Current Limiting with Short Time
Delay
Opened in six cycles No Current Limitation
Fault Initiated on Line Side of 30A Fuse
30A RK-1 Current Limiting Fuse
Size 1 Starter
40
gt 225 C /437 F
41
How Do We Protect Ourselves
  • Use the STOP Principal
  • Stop
  • Think
  • Options
  • Protections

42
Lock Out/ Tag Out
  • We will discuss methods of protecting you from
    the hazards of electricity later in the class.
  • The best method of protection is to de-energize
    the circuit.

43
The ESP
  • Now lets review the Electrical Safety Policy
    and How it will be used to help reduce the
    effects of electrical hazards.
  • The ESP is based on NFPA 70E. The Standard for
    Electrical Safety in the Workplace.

44
NFPA 70E
  • First published in 1997
  • Published by the NFPA
  • Updated in 2000, 2004 and 2009.
  • Now a part of the NEC code making process and
    formatted in the same manner.

45
OSHA and NFPA 70E
  • Six states have adopted NFPA 70E as the basis for
    electrical safety.
  • The Federal OSHA requirements are in the process
    of being modified to meet NFPA 70E standards.
  • NFPA 70E can be used by OSHA compliance officers
    now as a basis for a citation.

46
Overview of Safety Policy
  • The policy can be broken into three parts
  • Administration
  • Hazard Prevention
  • Hazard Control

47
Policy Requirements
  • All employees are required to read the entire
    policy and make themselves familiar with the
    requirements of the policy.
  • Ask your supervisor if you do not understand any
    of this policy.

48
Policy Overview
  • In this course we will cover some of the
    requirements of the electrical safety policy.

49
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Gloves
  • Tools
  • FR Clothing
  • Double Layered
  • All Cotton unclothing
  • Eye protection
  • Face protection
  • Ear protection

50
Selection of Equipment
  • All personal protective equipment shall be
    selected based on the NFPA 70E charts provided in
    the electrical safety policy.
  • You can download this chart from the main module
    page.

51
Authorization
  • No energized work may take place until a
    completed Energized Work Form has been submitted
    and approved by the site superintendent, the
    project manager, the Director of Education and
    Loss Prevention and either the Director of
    Service or the VP of Operations.
  • The Energized work form must be completed in
    detail and completely.

52
Hazard Risk Analysis
  • The most important part of protecting ourselves
    is to identify the hazards and find means to
    reduce and control those hazards.
  • We accomplish this with the Hazard Risk Analysis.
  • A hazard risk analysis example is included in the
    Electrical Safey Policy. Be sure to download this
    from the module and read it.

53
Avoiding The Situation
  • Ensure that power is locked out and tagged
  • Ensure temporary power panels are locked so that
    only E Light Personnel may operate
  • Ensure that only qualified and authorized
    personnel energize circuits
  • Ensure that all terminations are completed in a
    safe manner prior to energizing any circuits.
  • Never Assume

54
Review of Policies
  • We will discuss the Electrical Safety Policy and
    the Safety Plan for Solaris Project Regarding the
    Energizing of Electric Systems
  • No work may occur or any circuit may be energized
    unless all of the conditions and procedures of
    the Safety Plan for Solaris Project Regarding the
    Energizing of Electric Systems have been
    successfully accomplished

55
Do Not Tell Me Its Dangerous.
  • Most electricians inform customers that it is
    dangerous to work on live equipment and circuits.
  • They already know this. That is why they call us.
  • We have to show them the risks they are taking
    when we work energized.
  • We need to ensure our clients are satisfied with
    our work but we are also the experts in the
    electrical field. It is our responsibility to
    inform them of unsafe conditions.

56
Our Responsibility
  • We are the electrical experts
  • We must say no when we are requested to do
    something that is unsafe
  • We must say no when we are asked to circumvent
    the procedure or policy, even if it is just one
    time, and even if it is urgent or important.
  • The Weitz Company and Helix E Light have agreed
    to implement this policy on the jobsite and both
    companies have agreed to follow the procedures to
    improve the electrical safety on the project.

57
The Risks of Not Following the Procedures
  • Injury or Fatality
  • Uncontrolled shutdown
  • OSHA Investigation
  • Replacement of parts
  • Downtime to make repairs
  • Monetary damages

58
Summary
  • Electricity is the most powerful force commonly
    used by mankind.
  • We as electricians are exposed to its energy
    more than anyone else.
  • We must take every precaution to ensure our
    safety and the safety of others.
  • We want you to go home the same way you came to
    work.

59
S.T.O.P.
  • When an electrician makes a mistake, people can
    die.
  • Including the electrician!!!!

60
  • Return to the module main page and complete the
    test.
  • Thank you,
  • Ted Smith
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