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Africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade

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Mr. Millhouse AP World History Hebron High School 15th century minimal to Atlantic island plantations 16th century small 17th c. increase to 16,000 per year ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade


1
Africa in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Mr. Millhouse
  • AP World History
  • Hebron High School

2
Volume of the Slave Trade
  • 15th century minimal to Atlantic island
    plantations
  • 16th century small
  • 17th c. increase to 16,000 per year
  • 18th c. most of trade, 7 million slaves, 80 of
    all trade over all years
  • 19th c. slows down, under attack, still exports
    to Cuba Brazil (1.7 million)

3
African Slave Trade
4
African Slave Trade
5
Middle Passage
6
American Sugar Plantation
7
African Slavery
  • Slavery was common in African society
  • Where?
  • The Kongo, Ghana, Benin, etc.
  • All land was owned by the state
  • Owning slaves was a way to gain wealth
  • Slaves were used for servants, concubines, and
    field workers
  • Arrival of Europeans provided new opportunities
    for expansion of slavery

8
Slavery African Politics
  • Competition between rival kingdoms led to endless
    wars
  • Kingdoms trade slaves for guns
  • Wars led to political centralization
  • Slave trade shifts balance of power
  • From Sudanic Africa to the Gold Coast, the Kongo,
    and Angola

9
The Asanti A Sample Kingdom
  • Asante is on the Gold Coast
  • Modern day Ghana
  • Asante were members of the Akan people
  • Began as twenty small states
  • Matrilineal clan lineage
  • Most prominent clan was the Okoyo
  • Access to firearms allowed the Okoyo to
    centralize their authority after 1650 CE
  • Under the leadership of Osei Tutu (d. 1717)

10
Asanti Kingdom
  • Other Akan clans forced to pay tribute
  • Clans maintain some autonomy
  • A council advised the ruler on important issues
  • Used an ideology of unity to overcome clan
    divisions
  • Dealt directly with the Dutch at El Mina
  • Slave made up 2/3 of trade by 1700

11
The Kongo
  • Centralized kingdom
  • Converted to Christianity
  • Maintained diplomatic ties with Portugal
  • Attempted to abolish the slave trade
  • Portugal monopolized trade with the Kongo
  • Cowries, slaves, Asian luxuries

Loango, capital city of the Kongo
12
Cape Colony
  • Dutch East India Co. establish a colony at the
    Cape of Good Hope in 1652
  • Provision ships headed to Asia
  • Large fertile lands were great for farming
  • Used slave labor
  • Slaves brought from Indonesia and other parts of
    Asia
  • Eventually enslave the natives
  • Dutch settlers, called Boers, move to Cape Colony
    in search of land
  • 17, 000 settlers, 26,ooo slaves, and 14,ooo
    natives by 1800

13
East Africa the Arrival of Europe
  • Swahili city-states continued traditional
    commerce in the Indian Ocean
  • Portuguese settlers on the coast used slave
    soldiers to expand their territories
  • Established plantations growing Asian spices
    using African slaves
  • Some African states copied European plantation
    system
  • Zanzibar had 100,000 slaves by 1860

14
Sudanic Africa
  • Fall of Songhai brought period of violent
    Islamization
  • Islamic elites vs. animistic natives
  • Violence helped supply slaves to coastal regions
  • In the 1770s Muslim reform movements began to
    spread a purified Sufi Islam
  • Movement had a major impact on Fulani tribe of
    the Western Sudan

15
The Sokoto Caliphate
  • Founded by Usman Dan Fodio
  • Believed he was an instrument of Allah
  • Preached jihad against Hausa kingdoms
  • Usmans son founded the Sokoto Caliphate in
    northern Nigeria
  • Attacked neighboring Muslim kingdoms
  • Effects of reformist Islam
  • Spread literacy, new centers of trade emerged,
    attempts to eliminate pagan practices
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