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Animal Behavior

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Animal Behavior 34.1 Elements of Behavior 34.2 Patterns of Behavior 34.1 Elements of Behavior Stimulus and Response Behavior and Evolution Innate Behavior Learned ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Behavior


1
Animal Behavior
  • 34.1 Elements of Behavior
  • 34.2 Patterns of Behavior

2
(No Transcript)
3
34.1 Elements of Behavior
  • Stimulus and Response
  • Behavior and Evolution
  • Innate Behavior
  • Learned Behavior
  • Instinct and Learning Combined

4
Stimulus and Response
  • Behavior reaction to stimulus in the
    environment
  • Usually behaviors are performed when an animal
    reacts to a stimulus.
  • Stimulus any kind of signal that carries
    information and can be detected.
  • Response a single, specific reaction to a
    stimulus.

5
Behavior and Evolution
  • Many behaviors are influenced by genes.
  • Behaviors may also evolve under the influence of
    natural selection.
  • Organisms with an adaptive behavior will survive
    and reproduce better than organisms that lack the
    behavior.

6
Innate Behavior
  • Also called an instinct or inborn behavior.
  • Fully functional form without previous use of it.
  • depend on internal mechanisms that develop as a
    result of complex interactions between an
    animals genes and its environment.

7
Learned Behavior
  • Learning animals can alter their behavior as a
    result of experience also called acquired
    behavior.
  • Most animals can learn
  • There are four major types of learning
  • Habituation
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Insight learning

8
Habituation
  • The simplest type of learning.
  • Habituation a process by which an animal
    decreases or stops its response to a repetitive
    stimulus that neither rewards nor harms the
    animal.
  • Ex Shore Ragworm

9
Classical Conditioning
  • Any time an animal makes a mental connection
    between a stimulus and some kind of reward or
    punishment.
  • Ivan Pavlovs Experiment
  • He studied salivation in dogs he discovered that
    if he always rang a bell at the same time he fed
    the dog, the dog would eventually begin to
    salivate whenever it heard a bell, even if food
    was not present.

10
Operant Conditioning
  • Occurs when an animal learns to behave in a
    certain way through repeated practice, in order
    to receive a reward or avoid punishment.
  • Made famous by B.F. Skinner
  • Created a box that when the lever was hit, food
    was delivered. After an animal is rewarded
    several times it knows that it can hit the lever
    to receive food. The animal has learned by
    operant conditioning.

11
Insight Learning
  • The most complicated form of learning.
  • Occurs when an animal applies something it has
    already learned to a new situation.
  • Common among humans and other primates.
  • In an experiment a hungry chimpanzee had to
    figure out how to reach a bunch of bananas
    hanging overhead it stacked some boxes on top
    of one another and climbed.

12
Instinct and Learning Combined
  • Most behaviors result from a combination of
    innate ability and learning.
  • Imprinting Some very young animals, such as
    ducks and geese, learn to recognize and follow
    the first moving object that they see during a
    critical time early in their lives.
  • This keeps young close to their mothers who will
    protect them and feed them.
  • Once imprinting occurs the behavior cannont be
    changed.

13
Instinct and Learning, cont.
  • Imprinting involves both innate and learned
    behavior.

14
34.2 Patterns of Behavior
  • Behavioral Cycles
  • Courtship
  • Social Behavior
  • Competition and Aggression
  • Communication

15
Behavioral Cycles
  • Migration the periodic movement from one place
    to another and then back again.
  • Ex birds, butterflies, and some whales
  • Allows animals to take advantage of favorable
    living conditions.
  • Ex Birds flying south for winter
  • Circadian rhythms behavioral cycles that occur
    in daily patterns.

16
Courtship
  • To pass along its genes to the next generation,
    any animal that reproduces sexually needs to
    locate and mate with another member of its
    species at least once.
  • Courtship behavior is part of an overall
    reproductive strategy that helps many animals
    identify healthy mates.
  • In courtship, an individual sends out stimuli,
    such as sounds, visual displays, or chemicals, in
    order to attract a member of the opposite sex.
  • In some species, courtship involves an elaborate
    series of behaviors called rituals.

17
Social Behavior
  • Whenever animals interact with members of their
    own species, as in courtship, they are exhibiting
    social behavior.
  • Many animals form societies.
  • An animal society is a group of related animals
    of the same species that interact closely and
    often cooperate with one another.
  • Can often provide survival advantages.
  • Often members of a society are closely related to
    one another. Related individuals share a large
    proportion of each others genes. Therefore,
    helping a relative survive increases the chance
    that the genes an individual shares with that
    relative will be passed along to offspring.

18
Competition and Aggression
  • Territory a specific area that is occupied and
    protected by an animal or group of animals.
  • Claiming territory keeps other at a distance.
  • Competition occurs when two or more animals try
    to claim limited resources.

19
Competition and Aggression, cont.
  • Aggression occurs during competition a
    threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain
    control over another.

20
Communication
  • The passing of information from one organism to
    another.
  • Necessary when involving more than one
    individual.
  • Visual
  • Chemical
  • Sound
  • Language

21
Visual Signals
  • Used by animals with good eyesight.
  • Ex Cuttlefish

22
Chemical Signals
  • Used by animals with well-developed senses of
    smell including insects, fishes, and many
    mammals. Many release pheromones.
  • Pheromones chemical messengers that affect the
    behavior of other individuals of the same
    species.
  • Used to mark territory or signal readiness to
    mate.

23
Sound Signals
  • Used by animals with strong vocal abilities
    including crickets, toads, and birds.
  • Some have evolved elaborate communication systems.

24
Language
  • The most complicated form of communication.
  • Language a system of communication that
    combines sounds, symbols, or gestures according
    to sets of rules about word order and meaning,
    such as grammar and syntax.
  • Only humans are known to use language.
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