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African Americans, 1877-1914

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African Americans, 1877-1914 I. Segregation and Disfranchisement Race in the Progressive Era III. Booker T. Washington IV. W. E. B. Du Bois V. Marcus Garvey – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African Americans, 1877-1914


1
African Americans, 1877-1914
  • I. Segregation and Disfranchisement
  • Race in the Progressive Era
  • III. Booker T. Washington
  • IV. W. E. B. Du Bois
  • V. Marcus Garvey

2
Key Terms
  • Birth of a Nation (1915)
  • Tuskegee Institute (1881)
  • Atlanta Compromise (1895)
  • Talented Tenth
  • National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People (1909)
  • Universal Negro Improvement Association (1919)
  • Rutherford B. Hayes (1876-1881)
  • United States v. Cruikshank (1876)
  • Jim Crow
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Williams v. Mississippi (1898)
  • Grandfather Clause (1898)

3
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4
I. Segregation Disfranchisement
5
Rutherford B. Hayes
6
The Waite Supreme Court, 1874-1888
7
United States v. Cruikshank (1876)
  • The Supreme Court Declared that the Fourteenth
    Amendment adds nothing to the rights of one
    citizen against another.

8
Jim Crow
9
1889
10
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11
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • The Supreme Court wrote that the under lying
    fallacy of the plaintiffs argument to consist in
    the assumption that the enforced separation of
    the two races stamps the colored race with a
    badge of inferiority.

12
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • social prejudices may be overcome by
    legislation, and that equal rights cannot be
    secured to the Negro except by an enforced
    commingling of the two races. We cannot accept
    this position. . . . Legislation is powerless to
    eradicate racial instincts or to abolish
    distinctions based upon physical differences, and
    the attempt to do so can only result in
    accentuating the difficulties of the present
    situation.

13
Separate But Equal
14
Devices of Disenfranchisement
  • Poll tax
  • Property Qualification
  • Literacy Test

15
Williams v. Mississippi (1898)
  • The Supreme Court approved the Mississippi plan,
    written into the state constitution, for
    depriving black citizens of the franchise by
    means of a literacy test.

16
Disenfranchisement in the South
17
African Americans Registered to Vote in Louisiana
1896
1904
18
II. Race in the Progressive Era
19
African American Literacy Rate in 1910
20
African American Literacy
21
African Americans in High School in 1910
22
Percentage of Southerners in School
23
Percentage of Land Owners in the South
24
Between 1900 and 1914 Over 1,100 African
Americans were Lynched
25
Part of the crowd of 10,000 that watched the 1893
lynching of Henry Smith in Paris, Texas. The
word Justice is painted on the platform.
26
Taft on Jim Crow
  • The federal government has nothing to do with
    social equality.

27
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28
  • It is history written in lightening.

29
Inspired by Birth of a Nation, the KKK reformed
in 1915
30
By the mid 1920s the Klan had over Three Million
members
31
III. Booker T. Washington
32
Home of Booker T. Washington, born in 1856
33
Students Learning Industrial Skills at the
Tuskegee Institute
34
Tuskeege History Class, 1902
35
Atlanta Compromise
  • In all things that are purely social, blacks
    and whites can be as separate as the fingers,
    yet one as the hand in all things essential to
    mutual progress.

36
The Atlanta Compromise
  • Sweeping Concessions to Segregation.
  • Abandoned Reconstruction demand for Black
    Equality.
  • Emphasized Economic Opportunity, not Political or
    Civil Rights.

37
Tuskegee in 1901
38
IV. W. E. B. Du Bois
39
Dr. Du Bois (born in 1868) at Atlanta University
40
The Souls of Black Folk
  • So far as Mr. Washington apologizes for
    injustice, North or South, he does not rightly
    value the privilege and duty of voting, belittles
    the emasculating effects of caste distinction,
    and opposes the higher training and ambition for
    our brighter minds . . . so far as he, the South,
    or the Nation, does this . . . we must
    unceasingly and firmly oppose them.

41
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42
V. Marcus Garvey
43
Background
  • Born in Jamaica in 1887
  • Left School at 14
  • Read Washingtons Up From Slavery

44
Garvey and Leaders of the Universal Negro
Improvement Association
45
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46
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47
African American Mother and Children with Burning
Ku Klux Klan Cross in the Background
48
Who had the best plan?
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