Grape is an important commercial horticulture crop cultivated throughout India. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Grape is an important commercial horticulture crop cultivated throughout India.


1
Pesticides use in grapes IPM
INTRODUCTION
  • Grape is an important commercial horticulture
    crop cultivated throughout India.
  • A wide range of pesticides are used for the
    better yield of grape due to pest infestation
    throughout the season of the crop.

2
Pesticides in IPM
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a judicious
    combination of feasible pest management
    components to keep insects below economic injury
    level.
  • Various components of IPM include resistant
    varieties, cultural methods, physical methods,
    Mechanical methods, Biological control and
    Pesticides.
  • Inspite of their glorious past and great
    potential, pesticides is playing an important
    part as a component of sustainable IPM programmes
    which should be used on need basis.

3
  • Benefits of Pesticides in IPM
  • Easily available.
  • Greater control confidence.
  • Effective and rapid control.
  • Management efficiency.
  • Can enable other management practices.
  • Due to their efficacy, convenience, flexibility
    and economy, pesticides played a major role in
    crop production. But the intensive, extensive and
    misuse of pesticides caused widespread damage to
    the environment and human health, development of
    resistant pests etc.,

4
What can be done?
  • Use of appropriate pesticide in right dose at
    right time holds the key for effective pest
    management.
  • Indiscriminate use of pesticides not only adds to
    the cost of production significantly, but also
    results in pesticide residues in the final
    produce and also in soil and water.
  • Although pesticides are targeted at insect pests
    and diseases, many have deleterious effects on
    natural enemies.
  • Use selective pesticide that is least detrimental
    to beneficial species, yet still effective
    against the targeted species (eg., Neem).

5
Go for Judicious use of pesticides
  • Regular monitoring of pests should be done in the
    vineyards to assess the level of pest population.
  • Need for pesticide use should be determined only
    if pest incidence tends to approach economic
    threshold level (ETL).
  • Growers should use only the pesticides which are
    permitted for use in grapes by Central
    Insecticides Board (CIB), Faribabad / National
    Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG), Pune.
  • Do not mix any pesticides, growth regulators and
    any other chemicals without verifying their
    compatability.

6
Problem of pesticide residues
  • Grape is one of the important fresh fruit being
    exported to European Union countries besides the
    countries of Middle East and the Far East. 
  • Pesticide residue in the grapes is one of the
    quality parameters before the importers in the EU
    countries to accept the produce. 
  • During the export season of 2002-2003, some of
    the exported consignments had the pesticide
    residue more than the maximum residue level
    (MRL).
  • As a result, European Union ordered testing of
    pesticide residue in all the consignments. 
  • This action led to delay in sale of the produce
    in the market and also rejection of some
    consignment.

(Sourcehttp//nrcgrapes.nic.in/National20Referra
l20Laboratory.htm)
7
Awareness to be created on
  • Improve the grower knowledge about weather
    conditions conducive for disease and pest
    outbreaks
  • Critical times to apply sprays for effective
    control
  • Selection of the appropriate chemical for each
    disease/pest
  • Training must be given to grape growers in the
    safe handling of chemical pesticides is required
    to reduce the risk of contamination, both to the
    environment and vineyard workers.

8
  • Mealy bugs
  • Foliar spray of Malathion 50 EC _at_ 2ml/l or
    Methomyl 40 SP _at_ 1g/l or Dichlorvos 76 WSC _at_
    2ml/l reduce mealy bug population.
  • Swabbing of stem and arms with 2 ml of Dichlorvos
    76 EC 2 g of fish oil resin soap in a litre of
    water (incidence is sporadic).
  • Thrips, Hoppers and Flea beetles
  • Foliar spray of Imidacloprid 200 SL _at_0.3ml/l or
    Thiamethoxam 25 WG _at_0.25 g/l or
    Lambda-cyhalothrin 5 EC _at_0.5 ml/l.

9
  • Stem girdler
  • Main stem of grape can be protected by wrapping a
    piece of cloth soaked in an insecticide like
    chloripyriphos.
  • Flea beetles
  • Foliar spray of Carbaryl 50 WP _at_2 g /l.
  • Mites
  • Foliar spray of Difenthiuron _at_ 0.8 g/l

10
  • Grapevine Stem Borer
  • Insertion of ½ tablet of aluminium phosphide in
    each hole and plugging with mud was found to
    kill the stem borer in the holes.
  • Injecting vines with 2 ml of Dichlorvos 76 EC.

11
  • Downy mildew
  • Spray 1 Bordeaux mixture as preventive measure.
  • Three sprays of MetalxylMancozeb 72 WP _at_ 2.5g/l
    or Fosetyl AI _at_ 3 g/l to cover vines for 15-30
    days.
  • Spray copper fungicides (Copper hydroxide 2 g/l
    or COC 3.0 g/l) or any other non systematic
    fungicides viz., captan, mancozeb, chlorothalnil
    _at_ 2g/l after 3 to 4 days after 2nd or 3rd spray
    of systemic fungicides .
  • Anthracnose
  • Spray of copper fungicides suggested for control
    of downy mildew will also controls anthracnose.

12
Powdery mildew
  • Spray Sulfur _at_ 2.0 g/l or Potassium bicarbonate
    _at_5.0 g/l if powdery mildew is noticed.
  • Four spray of any of the following fungicide at
    10 day intervals from fruit set to veraison
    stage. Spray Penconazole _at_ 0.5 ml/l (Pre harvest
    Interval (PHI - 50 days), or Flusilazole _at_ 25
    ml/l (PHI - 50 days) or Tridemefon _at_1.0 g /l
    (PHI- 45 days).

13
Lets sum up
  • Grape cultivation relies on wide range of
    pesticides for its better yield due to pest
    infestation throughout the season of the crop.
  • Use of appropriate pesticide in right dose at
    right time holds the key for effective pest
    management.
  • Use of selective insecticides will protect the
    natural enemies from adverse effect of
    pesticides.
  • Need based application of pesticides will
    continue to play an important part as a component
    of sustainable IPM programmes.
  • Training must be given to grape growers in the
    safe handling of chemical pesticides is required
    to reduce the risk of contamination, both to the
    environment and vineyard workers.
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Grape is an important commercial horticulture crop cultivated throughout India.

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Title: Grape is an important commercial horticulture crop cultivated throughout India.


1
Pesticides use in grapes IPM
INTRODUCTION
  • Grape is an important commercial horticulture
    crop cultivated throughout India.
  • A wide range of pesticides are used for the
    better yield of grape due to pest infestation
    throughout the season of the crop.

2
Pesticides in IPM
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a judicious
    combination of feasible pest management
    components to keep insects below economic injury
    level.
  • Various components of IPM include resistant
    varieties, cultural methods, physical methods,
    Mechanical methods, Biological control and
    Pesticides.
  • Inspite of their glorious past and great
    potential, pesticides is playing an important
    part as a component of sustainable IPM programmes
    which should be used on need basis.

3
  • Benefits of Pesticides in IPM
  • Easily available.
  • Greater control confidence.
  • Effective and rapid control.
  • Management efficiency.
  • Can enable other management practices.
  • Due to their efficacy, convenience, flexibility
    and economy, pesticides played a major role in
    crop production. But the intensive, extensive and
    misuse of pesticides caused widespread damage to
    the environment and human health, development of
    resistant pests etc.,

4
What can be done?
  • Use of appropriate pesticide in right dose at
    right time holds the key for effective pest
    management.
  • Indiscriminate use of pesticides not only adds to
    the cost of production significantly, but also
    results in pesticide residues in the final
    produce and also in soil and water.
  • Although pesticides are targeted at insect pests
    and diseases, many have deleterious effects on
    natural enemies.
  • Use selective pesticide that is least detrimental
    to beneficial species, yet still effective
    against the targeted species (eg., Neem).

5
Go for Judicious use of pesticides
  • Regular monitoring of pests should be done in the
    vineyards to assess the level of pest population.
  • Need for pesticide use should be determined only
    if pest incidence tends to approach economic
    threshold level (ETL).
  • Growers should use only the pesticides which are
    permitted for use in grapes by Central
    Insecticides Board (CIB), Faribabad / National
    Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG), Pune.
  • Do not mix any pesticides, growth regulators and
    any other chemicals without verifying their
    compatability.

6
Problem of pesticide residues
  • Grape is one of the important fresh fruit being
    exported to European Union countries besides the
    countries of Middle East and the Far East. 
  • Pesticide residue in the grapes is one of the
    quality parameters before the importers in the EU
    countries to accept the produce. 
  • During the export season of 2002-2003, some of
    the exported consignments had the pesticide
    residue more than the maximum residue level
    (MRL).
  • As a result, European Union ordered testing of
    pesticide residue in all the consignments. 
  • This action led to delay in sale of the produce
    in the market and also rejection of some
    consignment.

(Sourcehttp//nrcgrapes.nic.in/National20Referra
l20Laboratory.htm)
7
Awareness to be created on
  • Improve the grower knowledge about weather
    conditions conducive for disease and pest
    outbreaks
  • Critical times to apply sprays for effective
    control
  • Selection of the appropriate chemical for each
    disease/pest
  • Training must be given to grape growers in the
    safe handling of chemical pesticides is required
    to reduce the risk of contamination, both to the
    environment and vineyard workers.

8
  • Mealy bugs
  • Foliar spray of Malathion 50 EC _at_ 2ml/l or
    Methomyl 40 SP _at_ 1g/l or Dichlorvos 76 WSC _at_
    2ml/l reduce mealy bug population.
  • Swabbing of stem and arms with 2 ml of Dichlorvos
    76 EC 2 g of fish oil resin soap in a litre of
    water (incidence is sporadic).
  • Thrips, Hoppers and Flea beetles
  • Foliar spray of Imidacloprid 200 SL _at_0.3ml/l or
    Thiamethoxam 25 WG _at_0.25 g/l or
    Lambda-cyhalothrin 5 EC _at_0.5 ml/l.

9
  • Stem girdler
  • Main stem of grape can be protected by wrapping a
    piece of cloth soaked in an insecticide like
    chloripyriphos.
  • Flea beetles
  • Foliar spray of Carbaryl 50 WP _at_2 g /l.
  • Mites
  • Foliar spray of Difenthiuron _at_ 0.8 g/l

10
  • Grapevine Stem Borer
  • Insertion of ½ tablet of aluminium phosphide in
    each hole and plugging with mud was found to
    kill the stem borer in the holes.
  • Injecting vines with 2 ml of Dichlorvos 76 EC.

11
  • Downy mildew
  • Spray 1 Bordeaux mixture as preventive measure.
  • Three sprays of MetalxylMancozeb 72 WP _at_ 2.5g/l
    or Fosetyl AI _at_ 3 g/l to cover vines for 15-30
    days.
  • Spray copper fungicides (Copper hydroxide 2 g/l
    or COC 3.0 g/l) or any other non systematic
    fungicides viz., captan, mancozeb, chlorothalnil
    _at_ 2g/l after 3 to 4 days after 2nd or 3rd spray
    of systemic fungicides .
  • Anthracnose
  • Spray of copper fungicides suggested for control
    of downy mildew will also controls anthracnose.

12
Powdery mildew
  • Spray Sulfur _at_ 2.0 g/l or Potassium bicarbonate
    _at_5.0 g/l if powdery mildew is noticed.
  • Four spray of any of the following fungicide at
    10 day intervals from fruit set to veraison
    stage. Spray Penconazole _at_ 0.5 ml/l (Pre harvest
    Interval (PHI - 50 days), or Flusilazole _at_ 25
    ml/l (PHI - 50 days) or Tridemefon _at_1.0 g /l
    (PHI- 45 days).

13
Lets sum up
  • Grape cultivation relies on wide range of
    pesticides for its better yield due to pest
    infestation throughout the season of the crop.
  • Use of appropriate pesticide in right dose at
    right time holds the key for effective pest
    management.
  • Use of selective insecticides will protect the
    natural enemies from adverse effect of
    pesticides.
  • Need based application of pesticides will
    continue to play an important part as a component
    of sustainable IPM programmes.
  • Training must be given to grape growers in the
    safe handling of chemical pesticides is required
    to reduce the risk of contamination, both to the
    environment and vineyard workers.
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