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The Renaissance

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Title: The Renaissance


1
The Renaissance
  • 1485 - 1625

2
What brought about the Renaissance? (The Good)
  • The Renaissance began in Italy it was a period
    of literary, artistic, and intellectual
    development
  • People were tired of fixed religion
  • Reformation
  • People wanted to discover new lands
  • Columbus
  • Inventions and new theories
  • Galileo Italian physicist, mathematician,
    astronomer, and philosopherresponsible for the
    birth of modern science
  • daVinci painter, sculptor, architect, engineer,
    and scientist
  • Michelangelo rival of daVincis also a
    painter, sculptor. He and daVinci contend for the
    archetypal Renaissance Man distinction.

3
What brought about the Renaissance? (The Not-So
Good)
  • Bubonic Plague
  • Wiped out cities and villages ( 1/3 ½ of
    Europe)
  • Crop failures and famine
  • The Peasants REVOLT!
  • (Oopsmaybe feudalism wasnt such a good idea)
  • The Hundred Years War (1337 1453)
  • Gun powder invention
  • (And there goes chivalry)

4
Renaissance defined
  • French word meaning rebirth
  • Goodbye violence hello enlightenment
  • Literature
  • Science
  • Classical languages
  • Art
  • Life Is Beautiful!
  • Renaissance Man

http//jeffersonia.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/da-
vinci-vitruvian-man.jpg
5
Religion and the Church
  • Reformation breaking with the Roman Catholic
    church
  • New religious ideas
  • Desiderius Erasmus (1466 1536) Dutch man whose
    translation of the New Testament raised serious
    questions about standard Church interpretations
    of the Bible. He focused attention on morality
    and religion. He remained a Roman Catholic even
    though he paved the way for a split in the Roman
    Catholic Church starting in 1517.
  • Martin Luther (1483 1546) German monk who
    nailed a list of dissenting beliefs (95 Theses)
    to the door of a German Church. Luthers protest
    was aimed at only reforming the Roman Catholic
    Church, but it ended by dividing the Church and
    introducing a new denomination called
    Protestants.

6
Catholic
Protestant
The Protestant Reformation Due to Renaissance,
many people began questioning the authority of
the Catholic Church. Many people had grievances
with the Church as well. People were against
the selling of indulgences (remission of
punishment for the sins of dead relatives)
payments often went into the pockets of corrupt
Church officials. People also objected to
other forms of payment to the Church, seen as
taxation. Others felt that Church leaders
played favorites by supporting Mediterranean
powers against northern countries. Others
questioned Church teaching and the Church
hierarchy. This was influenced by the growth of
Universities.
7
Humanism
  • A new intellectual movement
  • Desire for wisdom and knowledge
  • Attain VIRTUE
  • Get something out of this world
  • Explore human qualities and thoughts
  • What is a human being?
  • What is a good life?
  • How do I lead a good life?
  • Not anti-religious

http//www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/Lectures/Hum1/03120
3/031203thinker.jpg
8
Kings and Queens
http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3
/AnneBoleyn56.jpg
  • Tudor England

Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York
Henry VII dies Henry VIII takes throne
Marries Catherine of Aragon no male heir, gives
birth to Mary Tudor (of Bloody Mary fame)
1509
1486
  • King Henry VIII 2nd Tudor monarch King from
    1509-1547
  • Second-born son of Henry VII
  • The Many Wives of King Henry VII
  • 1. Catherine of Aragon (Spanish) originally
    married to Arthur, Henrys older brother who died
    when he was fourteen years old. Catherine said
    the union was never consummated. The Pope had to
    give a special dispensation for the future king
    to marry her.
  • Catherine gave birth to Mary Tudor.
  • She was never able to give her husband a male
    heir that he desperately wanted.

9
  • Tudor England

Marriage annulled
Marries Jane Seymour she dies same year
Marries Catherine Howard has her beheaded same
year
  • 2. Henry VIII then fell in love with Anne Boleyn,
    who was pregnant with his child. Henry appealed
    to the Catholic Church for a divorce. The Pope
    refused. Henry went on to marry Anne, and then
    several months later had the Archbishop of
    Canterbury declare his marriage to Catherine
    annulled.
  • The Pope excommunicated Henry VIII who then
    founded the Church of England (Anglican Church)
    and had himself declared the Supreme Head of the
    Church of England, otherwise known as The Act of
    Supremacy (1534).
  • Anne gave birth to Elizabeth, but was never
    able to produce any surviving sons.
  • Eventually Henry grew tired of her. Beheaded on
    charges of adultery.
  • 3. Jane Seymour Died in childbirth, while
    giving him his heir, Edward VI.
  • 4. Anne of Cleves political marriage, very
    homely woman. No children. Divorced.
  • 5. Catherine Howard Beheaded on charges of
    adultery
  • 6. Catherine Parr more nursemaid than wife to
    the ailing Henry, managed to outlive the king

10
  • Tudor England

Lady Jane Grey takes over throne
Edward VI 3rd Tudor monarch King from 1547-1553
Became king at the age of nine Under
Edwards rule, English replaced Latin in the
Church ritual. Edward ruled by Privy Council
councilors governed until Edward reached his
majority. Unfortunately, Edward died in 1553 (age
15) from measles tuberculosis. Lady Jane Grey,
a Reluctant Queen for Nine Days When the Edward
died, the Privy Council tried to put a reluctant
Lady Jane Grey, great grand-daughter of Henry VII
and cousin to Edward, on the throne ahead of
Edward's half-sister Mary. At her coronation,
Jane stated, "The crown is not my right and
pleaseth me not. The Lady Mary is the rightful
heir." There was no real public support for the
move and it fizzled after only nine days. The
Duke, the unfortunate Jane Grey, and all her
major supporters were executed at the Tower of
London.
http//www.stalbansmuseums.org.uk/var/ezwebin_site
/storage/images/media/musuems-images/lady-jane-gra
y-grey/171300-1-eng-GB/Lady-Jane-Gray-Grey1_museum
image.jpg
11
http//home.earthlink.net/zzz12/images/oldmarytud
or.jpg
Mary I 4th Tudor monarch Queen from 1553-1558
The reign of Mary I (Mary Tudor) is marked by
religious upheaval and dissension she restored
England to Catholicism, and restored the
authority of the Pope She insisted on
marrying her Spanish cousin, Phillip II, which
made England appear to be a minor appendage of
powerful Spain people found her acts
unpatriotic. Protestants were suppressed and
nearly 300 were burned at the stake, an act which
earned Mary the nickname "Bloody Mary" Died
in 1558 and Elizabeth I assumed the throne.
Elizabeth I 5th Tudor monarch Queen from
1558-1603 Became queen at the age of 25 had
a Renaissance education and read widely in Greek
and Latin classics Became Englands ablest
monarch since William the Conqueror. Known as
the Virgin Queen
12
Queen Elizabeth I cont.
She put an end to the religious turmoil of her
half-sister Mary Is era reestablished the
monarchs supremacy in the Anglican Church and
restored The Book of Common Prayer. She also
instituted a policy of religious moderation. A
patron of the Arts, she supported some of the
best writers of the day. Renaissance Literary
Players included Christopher Marlow, Andrew
Marvell, William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, Ben
Jonson, and John Milton. The word Elizabethan
signifies the height of the English Renaissance.
The Elizabethan Period is known as a golden
period in English History the height of the
English Renaissance saw the flowering of English
literature, poetry and theater. The French and
the Spanish both sought to dominate England.
Elizabeth played one side against the other and
would dangle marriage offers to them as bait.
This maneuvering allowed England a period of
peace during which commercial and maritime
interests prospered.
http//englishhistory.net/tudor/eliz1-ermine.jpg
13
Types of Literature
  • Sonnets (14 line poems with rhyme scheme abab
    cdcd efef gg)
  • The word sonnet means little song
  • Plays (thanks to Shakespeare)
  • The style of Iambic Pentameter
  • Ten syllables in each line
  • Five pairs of alternating unstressed and stressed
    syllables
  • The rhythm in each line sounds like ba-BUM /
    ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM
  • Most of Shakespeares famous quotations fit into
    this rhythm. For example
  • Is this / a dag- / -ger I / see be- / fore me?
    Each pair of syllables is called an iambus.
    Youll notice that each iambus is made up of one
    unstressed and one stressed beat (ba-BUM).
  • King James Version of the Bible
  • The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible
    is an English translation of the Christian Bible
    first published in 1611. The King James Version
    made a profound effect on English literature. The
    works of famous authors such as John Milton,
    Herman Melville, John Dryden and William
    Wordsworth are deeply inspired by it.
  • Although it is often referred to as the King
    James Version, particularly in the United States,
    King James was not personally involved in the
    translation. However, King James authorization
    was legally necessary for the translation to
    begin, and he set out guidelines

14
Topics of Literature
  • Love
  • Carpe Diem! (means Seize the Day)
  • Kings and queens
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