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Evolutionary Psychology

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Title: Evolutionary Psychology


1
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Notes
  • Objections to Evolutionary Psychology
  • Aim
  • To introduce you to the most common objections to
    evolutionary psychology and to an evolutionary
    approach to mind and behaviour.

2
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is evolutionary psychology another form of
    historical determinism?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean does EP
    assume that some sort of final outcome/state of
    humanity (good or bad) is inevitable?, the
    answer is no.
  • EP eschews the fallacy of progress toward
    perfection - i.e. that we are on some sort of
    upward trajectory towards a better state.
    Similarly it eschews the notion that we are on
    some sort of trajectory towards a worse state.
  • EP is agnostic about the moral value of the
    past future.

3
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP a form of biological determinism?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean does EP
    assume that thought and behaviour is amenable to
    causal explanation?, then the answer is yes.
  • EP assumes that thoughts and behaviours are not
    randomly produced, e.g. that what we call a train
    of thought is more akin to the related images
    that make up a scene in a film than it is to a
    set of stills from different scenes spliced
    together ad hoc.

4
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP a form of biological determinism?
  • A (2) If this question is taken to mean does EP
    assume that thought and behaviour is rigidly and
    unalterably fixed by genes?, then the answer is
    no.
  • Whilst EP assumes that the psychological
    adaptations are coded for just as is, say, the
    heart genes do not dictate the day-to-day
    specifics of their operation. EP predicts,
    ceteris paribus, that thought and behaviour is
    functional that it is directed toward end
    states but it does not insist on a singular
    specification of means.

5
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. What about learning?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean does EP
    suggest that we cannot and do not learn i.e.
    acquire information through experience?, the
    answer is no.
  • On the contrary, the concept of generational
    deadtime and the uncertain futures problem
    demands that we learn. What it does argue is that
    our learning is framed.

6
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. What about learning?
  • A(2) If this question is taken to mean does EP
    argue that we are not flexible, plastic or
    malleable?, the answer is no.

7
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Does EP claim that we are not responsible for
    our actions because our genes make us do things?
  • A. No. You and your genes are not separable
    you are your genes and your genes are you.
  • EP does not argue that we are unable to make
    decisions. But it does say that certain sorts of
    issue are of greater salience and we may be
    inclined to pursue certain sorts of outcome over
    others. Each of us possesses the cognitive
    ability to break the law as well as uphold it.

8
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Does EP claim that there is a limit on what we
    can think/conceive of?
  • A. Dont know. History suggests that there isnt
    and the inevitability of variation of forms
    (including forms of mind) suggests that there
    will always be novelty of thought.

9
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Does EP claim that there is a limit to
    thought?
  • A(2) If this question is taken to mean are there
    possible experiences not open to humans?, the
    answer is yes.
  • We know that many breeds of dog have a wider
    hearing register than we do. It follows that, in
    some sense, they are open to at least one form of
    sensory experience that appears to be closed to
    us.
  • Comparable claims can be made for other species.
  • Similarly, we have no sense of and can make no
    existential sense of, say, the life of a lion.

10
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP a defence of the status quo?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean is EP
    essentially conservative? the answer is no.
  • As explained above, EP is not driven by values.

11
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP a defence of the status quo?
  • A(2). If this question is taken to mean does EP
    seek to preserve inequality?, the answer is no.
  • EP argues that we possess essentially identical
    cognitive adaptations despite the fact that
    social hierarchies are ubiquitous in both human
    and non-human social groups.
  • How so if all are equal? Arguing that minds are
    alike does not deny variation (brought about by
    recombination, mutation, age, sex, access to
    social and material resources, injury, disease,
    etc).

12
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP a defence of the status quo?
  • A(3). If this question is taken to mean does EP
    deny that social change for the better is
    impossible?, the answer is no.
  • EP argues that human societies are in a state of
    tension between individual self interest and the
    profound need for social alliances and
    cooperation.
  • This tension is creative in that it peaks and
    troughs, and in the course of doing so generates
    new and different solutions.
  • EP argues that social change is inevitable rather
    than impossible by virtue of the fact that the
    individuals that comprise society are forever
    renewed.

13
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP racist?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean is EP
    politically motivated toward the end of
    biologising distinctions between races and or
    cultures?, the answer is no.
  • EP is in the business of formulating a general
    theory of mind and behaviour. The consequences of
    such a theory be they benign or malign - do not
    drive the search for it.

14
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP racist?
  • A (2) If this question is taken to mean does EP
    make biologically based distinctions between
    races or cultures?, again, the answer is no.
  • In fact, EP plays down any such suggestions
    even those that have empirical support and
    insists on the psychic unity of humankind. The
    quarry of EP is the functional organisation of
    the brain. The assumption is that this
    organisation must be pan-human because humans are
    a single species and all members of the species
    share the same functional organisation.

15
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP sexist?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean does EP
    make a distinction between the sexes? the answer
    is yes.
  • EP takes anatomical differences and the different
    roles that males and females play in reproduction
    seriously. Viz., male and female bodies are
    identical in most ways, but profoundly different
    in some. The possibility of sex differences is
    extended to cognition Cognitive abilities are
    assumed to be identical in most respects, but to
    differ fundamentally in certain domains -
    principally mating and parenting.

16
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Is EP sexist?
  • A(2) If this question is taken to mean does EP
    privilege one sex over the other? the answer is
    no.
  • No privilege is accorded to either sex on any
    psychological or behavioural dimension.
  • So, for example, a question such as are ovaries
    (under some or another construal of the term)
    better than testicles? or are female mating
    tactics more sophisticated than male tactics?,
    are meaningless in that EP doesnt ask or seek to
    answer such questions.

17
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Doesnt EP suggest that humanity, like the
    rest of nature, is red in tooth and claw?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean that a
    pessimistic view of the human condition is
    tolerated, the answer is yes.
  • EP accepts that what might be called the darker
    side of human behaviour may be part of the human
    condition. It does not fall prey to the so-called
    naturalistic fallacy whereupon it mistakes
    questions about What is? with What ought to
    be?.
  • e.g. The temporal and geographical pervasiveness
    of male sexual aggression suggests that it may be
    a sex typical proclivity whether we like it or
    not.

18
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Doesnt EP suggest that humanity, like the
    rest of nature, is red in tooth and claw?
  • A (2) If the question is taken to mean is EP in
    the business of reinforcing negative attitudes
    and stereotypes and insisting upon their
    legitimacy?, the answer is no.
  • In being about the human condition, EP seeks to
    find out about the source of negativity with a
    view toward amelioration e.g. given that most
    males are not sexually aggressive can the
    conditions that elicit such behaviour be
    specified and extinguished?

19
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Does EP deny that factors other than evolved
    adaptations are irrelevant?
  • A. If this question is taken to mean are
    social/cultural considerations unimportant?, the
    answer is no.
  • Human minds are embedded in a changing flux of
    social conditions. How they respond is dependent
    on what is outside of them in much the same way
    as how, say, a given metal behaves is dependent
    on ambient temperature.
  • However, EP argues that the conditions in which
    minds find themselves have been created by other
    minds the world is ergonomic.

20
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Q. Does EP deny that factors other than evolved
    adaptations are irrelevant?
  • A(2) If this question is taken to mean does EP
    privilege a reductionistic approach to mind?,
    the answer is yes.
  • If you want to know anything you have to start
    somewhere.
  • EP makes the assumption that the modern human
    mind preceded modern societies and that the
    latter would not exist and does not exist
    independently of the former.
  • The starting point is the mind. If EP is
    reductionistic, it is so, only in the sense that
    it assumes that minds are complex but not
    mysterious.

21
Evolutionary PsychologyNotesObjections to
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Recap
  • First and foremost EP seeks to offer a coherent
    account according to the evidence in light of the
    (v.v. widely accepted) theory of evolution.
  • This account like any other has political
    implications but EP has nothing to say about what
    they might be nor is it interested in finding
    controversial implications
  • EP employs the standard epistemological tools of
    the natural sciences. This includes a conviction
    that thoughts and behaviours have a discernible
    cause and that the way to deduce the cause is to
    break the phenomena of interest into analysable
    parts.

22
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Week 1
  • Darwins argument three problems
  • Heritability, Non-fitness Altruism
  • Some key terms concepts
  • Altruism Genes Fitness - Lamarck(ism) -
    Mendel(ian) - Reproductive success - Sexual
    Selection

23
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Heritability
  • Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) the
    inheritance of acquired characteristics The idea
    that parents pass on changes in their phenotype
    to their offspring.
  • The appeal of this idea was threefold
  • It provided a mechanism for the evolution of
    species.
  • Evolution occurred in response to human striving.
  • Social evolution appears to fit the term
    acquisition of characteristics.

24
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Heritability
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) the inheritance of
    particulate characteristics
  • The idea that parents pass on fixed
    characteristics of their genotype to their
    offspring.
  • From a Darwinian perspective the appeal of this
    idea was threefold
  • It provided a scientifically atested means by
    which inheritance took place.
  • It allowed evolution to be natural rather than
    purposive.
  • It provided a mechanism that suggested variation
    was slow, random and sex linked.

25
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Mendels Laws
  • 1st Law - Segregation
  • A heterozygote (an organism which is the result
    of sexual reproduction) transmits unchanged to
    each gamete (sex cell sperm or ovum) one of the
    two factors/traits (genes).
  • 2nd Law - Independent Assortment
  • The factors/traits (genes) are randomly
    recombined in the gamete (sex cell).
  • This applies to both parents.

26
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Try it this way ...
  • Offspring may look like a blend of the parents
  • i.e. a cocktail of blue and red producing purple.
  • In fact it is a recombination of fixed
    characteristics
  • i.e. a sack of marbles comprised of a random
    half of each parents sack of marbles.
  • The uniqueness comes not from blending but from
    recombination.

27
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Dominant and Recessive Genes
  • Genes are paired
  • i.e. offspring receive 1 from Pop 1 from Ma.
  • However, only one gene gets expressed.
  • That expressed is called the dominant gene.
  • That not expressed is called the recessive gene.

28
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Dominant and Recessive Genes demonstrate that -
  • a preponderance of observable expressed
    characteristics can hide the fact that an equal
    number of genes coding for a different variation
    of the trait exist in a population
  • the expression of recessive genes (often after
    many generations) shows that traits cannot be
    blended out of existence.

29
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Heritability
  • Mutation
  • Mutation refers to the imperfect replication of a
    gene.
  • A mutated gene is an inexact copy of the original
    which ends up in a gamete and, subsequently, in a
    new genome.

30
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Heritability
  • 3 things to note about mutations ...
  • They are rare
  • genes copy with fidelity almost all of the time.
  • They are normally deleterious
  • expressed mutations very rarely improve the
    final phenotype in terms of fitness.
  • They are the diving force behind evolution
  • the rarities that do improve the final
    phenotype out-replicate alternatives with the
    result that a population changes shape.

31
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of non-fitness
  • What is Sexual Selection?
  • Darwin argued that -
  • Some traits are more closely associated with
    reproduction than others.
  • For these traits to be susceptible to SS they
    must confer an advantage over same sex
    con-specifics with respect to reproduction.
  • In large mammals where females typically provide
    the bulk of parental investment, females were the
    object of most intra-sexual competition and
    females were the selecting sex in most
    inter-sexual competition.

32
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of non-fitness
  • Two types of Sexual Selection
  • Intra-sexual Selection
  • direct competition between members of the same
    sex that results in access to members of the
    opposite sex
  • e.g. two males engage in a competition whereupon
    the winner gains sexual access to the female(s).
  • Inter-sexual Selection
  • indirect competition between members of the same
    sex that gives access to members of the opposite
    sex
  • e.g. a females courts a male with a view to being
    his mate.

33
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of non-fitness
  • Sir Ronald Fisher (1890-1962) Runaway Selection
  • The idea that evolution can be accelerated by the
    exercise of mate choice for apparently non-fit
    characteristics
  • e.g. non-fit features can promote reproductive
    success.
  • From a Darwinian perspective the appeal of this
    idea was ...

34
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of non-fitness
  • Runaway Selection
  • It explained why mutations not related to
    survival per se might work.
  • It provided a second, faster mode of evolution.
  • It helped to explain why some species have
    evolved faster than others.
  • It explained sexual dimorphism.

35
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)
  • Essay on the Principle of Population
  • The idea that food supply can only grow at an
    arithmetic rate whilst population grows at a
    geometric rate
  • food supply increase thus 1, 2, 3, 4 . . . . . .
  • population grows thus 2, 4, 8, 16 . . . . . . .
  • Or even, say, 2, 6, 18, 54 . . . . . . . . . . .

36
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • Malthus influence on Darwin
  • Populations are constrained by resources and the
    constraint is omnipresent.
  • Organisms cannot not compete.
  • Omnipresent resource shortage necessity of
    competition selfishness.
  • According to NS, if an organism sacrificed itself
    or any resource to the benefit of another then
    that proclivity would, axiomatically, not be
    passed on to others.
  • In other words, selfishness will out-compete
    altruism.

37
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • The distributed individual.
  • The idea is that any given gene is selfish but
    not necessarily unique. A clone is expected to be
    extant in a number of other individuals
  • i.e. there are multiple copies of all genes and,
    given the Mendelian rules of inheritance, the
    proximity of exact copies are likely to be
    closest in kin-groups.
  • Thus ...
  • The answer to the question why Group rather
    than Species Selection?, is due to the
    observation that altruism seemed to be more
    prevalent in groups comprised of related
    individuals.

38
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • A gene that promotes RS in others that carry a
    clone of itself promotes replication of further
    clones.
  • Individuals need to be able to identify others
    that carry the clone
  • If raised with X then help
  • Or,
  • Help those who look/smell like you
  • The tendency to engage in unconditional
    reciprocation with related others is called kin
    selection.

39
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • Kin selection
  • The formalisation of this idea is as follows
  • BrgtC
  • Where B benefit to the reproductive success of
    the actor
  • Where C cost to the actor in terms of its own
    reproductive success, and,
  • Where r the degree of relatedness between the
    benefactor and the benefitee.
  • Provided that there is some degree of
    relatedness, there is always the potential that
    it will benefit the actor to jeopardise its own
    reproductive success provided the success of the
    other is enhanced.

40

Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • Kin selection
  • For Darwinism, the appeal of this idea is
    threefold ...
  • The problem of altruism dissolves.
  • Unit of selection unit of inheritance source
    of variation.
  • Altruism in terms of kin relations allows for
  • the individual selfishness insisted upon by
    Darwin
  • pro-social behaviour to evolve into an ESS.
  • The result is the Selfish-Gene account of
    altruism.

41

Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 1 - Darwins
argument and three problems
  • Problem of altruism
  • Reciprocal Altruism
  • The idea is that altruistic behaviour between
    non-kin can evolve provided others in the
    population reciprocate
  • i.e. favour exchanges can become typical provided
    debt is honoured.

42
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Week 2
  • Evolutionary Approaches to Thought and Behaviour
  • Running Order ...
  • The general argument of EP
  • Ultimate and Proximate Explanations
  • Psychological adaptations
  • The adapted mind vs the adaptive mind

43
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and BehaviourThe general
argument of EP
  • The physical object between our ears is coded for
    by genes
  • i.e. that nothing other than genes build brains.
  • Cognition is dependent on a product of the brain
  • i.e. that nothing other than brains think.
  • Therefore a relationship holds/exists between
    genes and cognitive functions.
  • Furthermore, selection works at the level of
    genes
  • i.e. it is alleles that are selected for, not the
    bodies they build.
  • Therefore, natural and/or sexual selection should
    be discernible in cognitive functioning.

44
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and BehaviourThe general
argument of EP
  • The novel aspect of EP over common-or-garden
    cognitive psychology is that it claims to know
    what to look for by way of cognitive functions,
    courtesy of our understanding of the selection
    pressures that brought us about.
  • Try it this way ...
  • The structure of the body serves survival
    reproduction, this functional structure is a
    product of natural selection.
  • EPs propose that cognitive structure has also
    been designed by NS to serve survival
    reproduction.

45
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and BehaviourUltimate
Proximate explanations
  • def- Proximate explanations extant algorithms
    mechanisms underlying current behaviours.
  • def- Ultimate explanations past (and possibly
    current) selection pressures .
  • Ultimate causes have given rise to Proximate
    mechanisms.
  • Ultimate causes are problems, proximate
    mechanisms are solutions.
  • The latter tell us how a problem is solved, the
    former tell us why it is solved.

46
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and Behaviour Adaptations
  • Williams defined an adaptation as
  • a characteristic that has arisen through and
    been shaped by natural and/or sexual selection.
    It regularly develops in members of the same
    species because it helped to solve problems of
    survival and reproduction in the evolutionary
    ancestry of the organism. Consequently it can be
    expected to have a genetic basis ensuring that
    the adaptation is passed through the generations
    (Williams, 1966 12).

47
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and Behaviour
Psychological Adaptations
  • def- A psychological adaptation is a functional
    component of the nervous system that solves a
    problem which has some (direct or indirect)
    relationship to reproduction.
  • What properties do psychological adaptations
    have?
  • Note- The general point is that we can apply the
    same or similar criteria to putative
    psychological adaptations as we do physiological
    ones.

48
Evolutionary Psychology PsychologicalWeek 2 -
Evolutionary Approaches to Thought and Behaviour
Adaptations
  • (a) By complex it is meant that the feature
    exhibits non-accidental design characteristics.
  • (b) By economic it is meant that the feature
    exhibits material/metabolic parsimony.
  • (c) By efficient it is meant that the feature
    exhibits algorithmic parsimony.
  • (d) By reliable it is meant that the feature
    exhibits iterated performance.
  • (e) By precise it is meant that the feature
    exhibits discrimination.
  • (f) By functional it is meant that the feature
    exhibits a specific fitness utility.

49
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and Behaviour Psychological
Adaptations
  • An adaptation is a trade-off between different
    survival and reproductive needs
  • e.g, a large body is useful against rivals but
    needs lots of time to grow and expenditure of
    energy.
  • The environment may change more rapidly than the
    organism can evolve, and some adaptations appear
    less well designed.
  • Not all features are adaptive, they may simply
    represent by-products
  • e.g. belly buttons are the by-product of an
    adaptive feature and are not adaptive in
    themselves
  • The point Psychological adaptations are not as
    clean as the computation metaphor may imply.

50
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and Behaviour Adapted vs
Adaptive Mind
  • Darwinian Social Science
  • DSS the backward approach
  • Establish the actual domain - i.e. the present
    (E2)
  • Verify frequency of behaviour X
  • Fix X as an adaptive feature of the present
  • Test X against the model of the proper domain
    (E1)
  • F(E2)X P(E1)X

51
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and Behaviour Adapted vs
Adaptive Mind
  • Evolutionary Psychology
  • EP the forward approach
  • Establish the proper domain - i.e. the past (E1)
  • Verify the likely success of behaviour X in PD
  • Postulate a probability that X persists in the
    actual domain (E2)
  • Test X against the the present
  • P(E2)X F(E1)X

52
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 2 - Evolutionary
Approaches to Thought and Behaviour Recap
  • Cognitive psychology employs the Classical
    Cascade
  • Problem?Algorithms?Physiology
  • EP posits the problems via recourse to natural
    history.
  • Psychological adaptations are the proximate
    products of ultimate causes.

53
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Week 3
  • The Natural History of Humans
  • Aim To introduce to you the some of the facts of
    human natural history that give licence to the
    claim that humans minds are evolved adaptations.
  • Reward You should have a fuller appreciation of
    the details of the evolution of your lineage and
    be able to generate hypotheses about
    psychological adaptations.

54
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • The EEA Term coined by Bowlby (1969) developed
    by Tooby Cosmides (1990, 92)
  • The EEA is the set of past selection pressures
    responsible for any given extant adaptation
  • i.e. analogous to the notion of niche in
    evolutionary biology.
  • EEA synonyms the Pleistocene ancestral
    environment environment of selection
    Plio-Pleistocene.
  • In terms of time ...
  • sometimes relaxed to cover the c.6 million year
    period to cover the emergence of the family
    hominoid.
  • most often taken to be the c.2 million year
    period since the emergence of the genus Homo.

55
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • The EEA
  • ... one can define the environment of
    evolutionary adaptedness for an adaptation as
    that set of selection pressures (i.e. of the
    ancestral world) that endured long enough to push
    each allele underlying the adaptation from its
    initial appearance to near fixation (Tooby
    Cosmides, 1997).

56
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • The lineage Homo
  • Australopithecines
  • Last common ancestor between the apes us lived
    c 5 to 7 mya.
  • Earliest members of our lineage, the
    Australopithecines, from c 6 to c 2 mya.
  • The Australopithecines were bi-pedal but long
    arms, long, curved fingers toe bones suggesting
    they were also arboreal.
  • The Australo. had brains approx. same size as
    modern great apes.
  • The Australo. were a highly adapted species in
    their own right.
  • robustus were contemporaneous with the earliest
    forms of Homo.

57
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • The lineage Homo
  • Early Homo
  • The genus Homo is thought to have arisen from one
    of the gracile Australo.forms.
  • The first earliest Homo was habilis appeared
    around 2 mya.
  • habilis handy man the first to use tools.
  • Next was ergaster/erectus, with a further
    increase in brain size and larger stature, arose
    around 1.8 mya.
  • erectus had bigger brain, larger morph and was
    the first hominid to radiate out of Africa.
  • erectus appears to be the longest lived of Homo
    species to date c 1.5 mys.

58
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • The lineage Homo
  • Homo sapien sapien
  • Out-of-Africa (or African Eve hypothesis)
    suggests all living humans share a recent common
    ancestor that lived in Africa c 100 000 to 200
    000 years ago.
  • This species crossed the Levant land bridge
    around 70 000 years ago At this point tool
    construction use diversified.
  • Subsequently spread across Eurasia, into
    Australia, and, via the Bering Strait, into the
    Americas c15 000 years ago.

59
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • The lineage Homo
  • Homo sapien sapien
  • The Out-of-Africa hypothesis suggests
  • Neanderthals of Europe and western Asia are not
    directly related to moderns.
  • That modern human races did not evolve from
    different populations of erectus.
  • That early sapien was distinct from predecessors
    by behavioural flexibility in the face of novel
    environments.

60
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • Where was the EEA?
  • Africa More precisely, it is predominantly
    eastern and, to a lesser extent, southern
    African.
  • We cannot be as sure of its location as we can
    its duration there is debate on the matter of
    where hominid development prior to modern man
    took place.
  • As a general rule take it that the EEA (or a
    functional equivalent) is being invoked (by you
    or any other) when any given account of our past
    or hypothesis concerning psychological
    adaptations makes an assumption(s) about
  • a species of Homo, and/or
  • the environment to which it was adapted, and/or
  • the environment to which it needed to adapt.

61
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • Why is the EEA invoked?
  • The EEA is a tacit admission that evolutionary
    theory in and of itself is not entirely adequate
    as a generator of hypotheses about psychological
    adaptations.
  • It humanises evolutionary theory
  • By isolating the EEA as the Pleistocene we can be
    species-specific.
  • It works as an adaptation generator
  • From our reproductive ecology we can infer the
    problems the brain has evolved to solve, and
    hypotheses the functional properties the brain is
    likely to have.

62
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • What can we say about the EEA?
  • We sought sex.
  • We exhibited nepotism.
  • We sought and, if necessary, competed for
    resources.
  • Furthermore ...
  • Historically speaking, sex, kin and resource
    acquisition are what humans do.
  • Functionally speaking, sex, kin and resource
    acquisition are what humans are for.

63
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • What do we know about the EEA?
  • Hunter/gather and/or scavenging subsistence
  • Nomadic or semi-nomadic existence
  • Low population density
  • Small kin-based groupings
  • Simple technology
  • High infant mortality and low life expectancy
  • Vulnerability to the natural environment
  • Few lifestyle options.

64
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • Some points to note about the EEA
  • It always refers to the past
  • it is responsible for adaptations that evolved
    over thousands of generations and these are
    tuned to recurrent aspects of past
    environments.
  • The past and the present are not identical
  • if the environment changes, then the adaptation
    may be out of tune with the present environment
    and fail to properly perform its reproductive
    function.
  • It is an essential and logically necessary aspect
    of the theory of natural selection.

65
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 3 - The Natural
History of Humans
  • Recap
  • EP works on the assumption that the past
    explains the present - the past is called the
    EEA.
  • The EEA is the period between the emergence of
    Homo as a form and us as an instance.
  • The EEA is the conceptual bridge and adaptation
    generator between what we were what we are.
  • The EEA is also a maladaptation generator it
    tells what we are not fitted to.
  • What we can say about the EEA is constrained by
    the fossil record.

66
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Week 4
  • Brains, Minds and Consciousness
  • Running Order ...
  • Development of the brain
  • Functional anatomy of the adult brain
  • The mind body problem
  • The computational metaphor
  • The Classical Cascade
  • The intentional stance

67
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessDevelopment of the brain
  • Growth development of the CNS involves ...
  • Induction of the neural tube
  • Neural ...
  • proliferation
  • migration
  • aggregation differentiation
  • synapse formation
  • cell death
  • selection stabilisation

68
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessDevelopment of the brain
  • Induction of the neural tube
  • 18 days Ectoderm (outer dorsal layer of embryo)
    forms the neural plate.
  • 21 days The plate curls in upon itself and fuses
    to form the neural tube.
  • 28 days The tube is closed and its rostral
    (nose) end develops three chambers later to
    become the ventricles will become the fore-,
    mid- and hindbrain.
  • 50 days Symmetrical division gives way to
    asymmetrical division.
  • 70 days The tube is c1.25cm (1/2 inch) mostly
    ventricle.
  • 140 days The tube is c5cm (2 inches) mostly
    tissue.
  • 150 days the contours of the adult brain are
    discernible ... .

69
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessDevelopment of the brain
  • 1. Within the embryonic sac the neural tube is
    formed.
  • 2. Cells inside the tube proliferate.
  • 3. These cells divide and produce neurons
    properly.
  • 4. The neurons radiate outward from the centre of
    the tube via glia cells..
  • 5. The process of radiation takes neurons to
    different chambers of the developing tube at
    different rates.
  • 6. The chambers become the ventricles and the
    neurons begin to form the different parts of the
    mature brain.
  • 7. The first discernible parts of the brain are
    the Fore-, Mid- Hindbrain.
  • 8. Once neurons have migrated to their final
    destinations very few new neurons are produced.
  • 9. Once neurons have migrated axons and dendrites
    begin to form.

70
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
  • Mapping the CNS Brain
  • Sagittal plane
  • vertical slice down the middle
  • Horizontal plane
  • horizontal slice through the middle
  • Coronal plane
  • vertical slice at 90 from the Sagittal
  • Deviations are expressed in relation to
    established planes
  • lateral sagittal
  • ventral coronal

71
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Basal ganglia
  • Limbic system
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Tectum
  • Tegmentum
  • Cerebellum
  • Pons
  • Medulla

Telecephalon Diencephalon Mecencephalon Metence
phalon Myelencephalon
  • Forebrain
  • Midbrain
  • Hindbrain

72
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
Telecephalon Diencephalon Mecencephalon
Metencephalon Myelencephalon
  • Cere. cortex
  • Basal ganglia
  • Limbic system

Thalamus Hypothalamus
Tectum Tegmentum
Cerebellum Pons
Medulla
73
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
74
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
  • The Hindbrain
  • Contains the brain structures below the midbrain.
    This region relays information from the spinal
    cord to other parts of the brain. It helps
    control movement coordination, involuntary
    functions and equilibrium, e.g. body temperature.

75
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
  • The Midbrain
  • Is a collection of nuclei that mainly relays
    sensory information from sense organs to other
    brain areas and coordinates some reflex
    activity, e.g. the pupil.

76
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
  • The Forebrain
  • Carries out the highest intellectual functions
    inc. negotiating others.
  • The largest section of the forebrain is the
    cerebral cortex a.k.a. cerebrum neocortex.
  • Note- Resembling a big walnut, the cerebral
    cortex makes up 70 of the nervous system.

77
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessFunctional anatomy of the
adult brain
  • The Frontal lobe
  • Damage to this lobe can effect
  • ability to execute plans
  • ability to consider others
  • motivation
  • ability to execute movements.
  • The Temporal lobe
  • Damage to this lobe can effect
  • recognition of familiar faces
  • ability to distinguish between the real and
    imaginary
  • Memory esp. short term.
  • The Parietal lobe
  • Damage to this lobe can effect
  • recognition of touch and pain
  • the sense of where the body is in space.
  • The Occipital lobe
  • Damage to this lobe can effect
  • vision
  • face object recognition.

78
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousness
  • The novel aspect of EP over common-or-garden
    cognitive psychology is that it claims to know
    what to look for by way of cognitive functions,
    courtesy of our understanding of the selection
    pressures that brought us about.
  • Try it this way ...
  • The structure of the body serves survival
    reproduction this functional structure is a
    product of natural selection.
  • EPs propose that cognitive structure has also
    been designed by NS to serve survival
    reproduction.

79
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe mind-body problem
  • Dualism
  • As the term suggests, the basic idea of dualism
    is that mind and matter are two different sorts
    of entities.
  • Whilst many facets of one do not appear readily
    translated into the other, the most obvious
    property that distinguishes them is physical
    extension.
  • i.e. physical objects occupy space, thoughts do
    not.
  • I think therefore I am
  • Objectivity Subjectivity
  • Privacy of thought
  • Phenomenal qualities
  • Intentionality
  • Causal relations.

80
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe mind-body problem
  • Cartesian Dualism
  • Descartes concluded that . . . .
  • What we know first and for sure is that there
    is mind - physical things are secondary.
  • Accordingly, the physical and the mental are
    distinct substances.

81
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe computational metaphor
  • ... only it isnt a metaphor
  • Cognitive Psychology takes the mind to be a
    computer and not just like a computer.
  • def- computation a set of definite processes
    e.g. algorithms that begin with information and
    produce a decision.
  • i.e. stimuli is taken as content which is then
    manipulated according to specific and specifiable
    rules. The result of the manipulation is output
    this can be behaviour or a further mental state.

82
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe computational metaphor
  • Computation is what is important in cognitive
    psychology and not computers.
  • Computations are the programmes, computers are
    the machinery upon which programmes run, and they
    depend upon
  • Identifiable information - the system needs to
    be able to see that a change outside of itself
    is pertinent to itself.
  • The ability to discriminate - it needs to be able
    to see what the information means.
  • The capacity for change in light of the
    information - the system needs to be able to
    respond in at least 1 of 2 ways.
  • This process need be no more complicated (?) than
    a thermostat, but may be as complicated as one
    cares to imagine.

83
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe Classical Cascade
  • Try it this way ...
  • Humans need to solve the problem of edge
    detection.
  • A property that a brain should have is an
    algorithm to detect edges in order to avoid them.
  • Once we have specified such an algorithm found
    that we behave in a manner as to suggest that we
    are using such an algorithm, we have a
    description of the solution to the given problem.
    We have a psychological account.

84
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe Classical Cascade
  • Key points so far ...
  • One need not know the specification of the
    machine on which programmes run in order to know
    the programmes themselves.
  • The distinction between computations and
    computers, between hardware and software is said
    to hold between what we typically call mind and
    brain.
  • Some more terminology ...
  • Problems, Domains Darwinian Algorithms
  • def- domain a type or class of problem.
  • def- Darwinian algorithm a naturally selected
    solution.

85
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe Classical Cascade
  • What sort of things might constitute a problem
    at the top of the Classical Cascade?
  • Solicitation of parental assistance
  • Parenting
  • Modelling the spatial distribution of (food)
    objects
  • Navigating
  • Avoiding predators, food toxins, incest etc.
  • Social competition, deception manipulation
  • Understanding the intentions of others
  • Finding a reproductively viable mate.

86
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe Classical Cascade
  • All of the above, and many others, constitute
    problems
  • if you dont solve them you wont enjoy RS.
  • The more pressing the problem is, the more
    intensely natural selection will favour
    variations that produce a better solution.
  • It is this push toward specialisation that
    produces specificity of algorithm.

87
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 4 - Brains, minds,
and consciousnessThe Classical Cascade
  • Domain specificity refers to the fact that
    adaptations solve particular problems
  • i.e. the adaptation that we call the lung solves
    a different sort type of problem to that of the
    eye.
  • Three points to note ...
  • A domain is a selection pressure selection
    pressure can be conceptualised as a reproductive
    problem.
  • Selection pressures create adaptations,
    adaptations will not solve problems in other
    domains.
  • Domain specificity is a property of physiological
    adaptations presumed to be a property of
    psychological adaptations also.

88
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Week 5
  • Cooperation Interdependence

89
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Running order
  • Group Selectionism
  • Recap on Kin Altruism
  • Reciprocal Altruism
  • Social Identity Theory Virtual Kin Altruism
  • Moral sentiment

90
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Group Selection for the good of the species.
  • Zoology and ethology refuted selfish selection
  • Co-operation amongst members of species, as
    diverse as ants and birds, offered what seemed to
    be sound reasons for believing that individual
    characteristics pertaining to fitness were
    pertinent to the survival of the species as a
    whole.
  • On a human level, group selectionism seemed to
    offer the prospect that the good of the species
    orchestrated some of the most acute human
    behaviours such as aggression and altruism.
  • Thus, in an attempt to shore up a Darwinian
    approach, group selectionism took hold.

91
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Whats wrong with Group Selection?
  • Q. Why cant a species (or a population therein)
    come to be for the good of itself?
  • A. Given that NS is about differential
    reproduction, a competitor species identical in
    all respects bar the Group Selection gene would
    out-reproduce it.

John Maynard-Smith
92
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Inclusive Fitness Theory The distributed
    individual
  • The idea is that any given gene is selfish but
    not necessarily unique. A clone is expected to be
    extant in a number of other individuals
  • i.e. there are multiple copies of all genes and,
    given the Mendelian rules of inheritance, the
    proximity of exact copies are likely to be
    closest in kin-groups.
  • Thus ...
  • The answer to the question why Group rather
    than Species Selection?, is due to the
    observation that altruism seemed to be more
    prevalent in groups comprised of related
    individuals.

93
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Try it this way ...
  • Suppose that the K locus carries alleles that
    code for exchange relations toward kin.
  • This allele comes in four forms ...
  • k Cheat - i.e. take but dont give.
  • k Grudger - i.e. give only having been given to
    but defect if defected against thereafter.
  • K Initiator - i.e. give before being given to but
    defect if defected against thereafter.
  • K Altruist - i.e. give unconditionally to others
    with K, otherwise adopt Grudger, Initiator or
    Cheat.

94
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Try it this way ...
  • Generation 1
  • Pop Ma
  • Kk kK
  • K Altruist k Cheat k Grudger K Initiator

95
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Try it this way ...
  • Generation 2
  • Baby1 Baby 2 Baby 3 Baby 4
  • Kk kK KK kk
  • NoteIf K is dominant it will be expressed in two
    of the four.
  • If K is recessive it will be expressed in one of
    the four.

96
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Try it this way ...
  • All that is required for K to spread is for K to
    have the effect of producing more RS in other
    bodies with K than will K, k or k.
  • Thus, Pops K helps children with K to have
    greater RS compared. to others in the population.
  • Notice There is no cost to Pop because the
    Babies just are his RS.
  • So, if Babies 1 and 3 have, say, six Babies
    against the average of four then K is likely to
    have a greater representation in generation 3
    than K, k or k.

97
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Scenario 1. Population of Suckers
  • In a population comprised mainly of Suckers,
    Cheats would do well. Payoffs exceed their costs
    because they have no costs and meet Suckers most
    of the time. This strategy would proliferate
    mainly at the cost of Suckers.
  • Grudgers also do well. Their payoffs will also
    exceed their costs. Meeting Suckers who give but
    do not insist on reciprocation Grudgers will also
    spread in the population.
  • Initiators do as well as Cheats by happenstance.
    They would be ready to give, but take without
    reciprocation from the Suckers they meet most of
    the time.
  • Suckers do relatively badly. They loose more
    points than they gain because although they
    accumulate points from other Suckers they give to
    all.

98
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Scenario 3. Population of Cheats
  • Suckers do very badly. They are exploited by the
    majority Cheats.
  • Grudgers would not do well. In a population of
    cheats they dont loose points because they dont
    initiate, but because neither do Cheats they have
    limited chances to build point scoring exchanges.
  • Initiators would do badly. Although they would
    only be exploited by any given Cheat strategy
    once, they would move from interaction to
    interaction loosing points.
  • Cheats dont do well either. In a population
    comprised mainly of Cheats the Cheat has few
    opportunities to cheat!

99
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Scenario 3. Population of Grudgers
  • Suckers would do fairly well because the majority
    of favours would be returned by the numerous
    Grudgers.
  • Cheats would not accumulate many points because
    Grudgers do not give before having taken.
  • Initiators would do well because favours would be
    returned.
  • Grudgers would not do so well. Being a Grudger in
    a population mainly of Grudgers means that few
    positive point accumulating exchanges would begin.

100
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Scenario 4. Population of Initiators
  • Suckers would do well because favours would be
    returned by the Initiators.
  • Cheats would do very well by exploiting the
    tendency of Initiators to begin exchanges with a
    favour and responding with nothing.
  • Grudgers do well because positive exchanges would
    be initiated and their response would be
    reciprocation.
  • Initiators would do almost as well as Grudgers
    almost because the tendency to initiate means
    they would be carrying IOUs from Grudgers and
    would loose against Cheaters.

101
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Which strategy would win over time?
  • Across scenarios Suckers dont do well.
  • Unconditional giving leaves it vulnerable to
    Cheats. Suckers hold their own best amongst
    themselves.
  • Cheats thrive in two scenarios against Suckers
    and Initiators.
  • Dont do well against themselves and Grudgers.
  • Grudgers dont do badly or particularly well.
  • Immune to Cheats, thrive amongst Suckers.
  • Accumulate with Initiators but dont thrive
    amongst themselves.

102
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Which strategy would win over time?
  • Initiators appear to fair best.
  • Reciprocal exchanges are advantageous for both
    parties in terms of overall fitness - those who
    engage in more of them win over time.
  • Exposed by cheats but they gain from suckers to
    an equal extent as do Cheats and Grudgers.
  • Trigger exchanges in a population of Grudgers.
  • Exchange amongst themselves.

103
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Which strategy would win over time?
  • Initiators appear to fair best.
  • Evolutionary stable strategy.
  • tit-for tat strategy which begins generously
    but adopts a do unto others as they do onto you
    hereafter.
  • But Cheats can survive in small numbers.

104
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • How could Initiator get started?
  • Kin selection.
  • Error Management Theory.

105
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Social Identity Theory Virtual Kin Altruism
  • 3 assumptions
  • Self-concept is comprised of personal and social
    aspects.
  • We are motivated to achieve a positive
    self-concept.
  • Our social identity is built upon the positive
    identity of the group(s) to which we belong.

106
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • Social Identity Theory Virtual Kin Altruism
  • Group memberships are internalised.
  • We are inclined to affiliate with others and this
    inclination is promiscuous.
  • The need to affiliate is so great that when we
    define ourselves as members of a group, we
    perceive ourselves to be interchangeable with
    members of that group.
  • Fictive kin.
  • Kin altruism SIT both predict favouritism
    toward an in-group.
  • Good tricks, no brainers.

107
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • The psychological basis of RS
  • There are a number of ways in which a sense of
    fairness could be selected for ...
  • Seen as simple cooperation it can be selected for
    because those organisms that assist one another
    may enhance one another's fitness over non
    co-operators.
  • Seen as an ability to detect cheaters it will be
    selected for because the organism won't be
    consistently cheated by a conspecific.
  • Seen as a pressure to reciprocate, it will be
    selected for because the pressure will facilitate
    critical acts of reiterated cooperation and help
    to insure that the natural co-operator is not
    cheated.

108
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 5 Cooperation
interdependence
  • The psychological basis of RS
  • Warmth - signalling for initial altruistic move
    in a possible exchange.
  • Sympathy - signalling for awareness of anothers
    need for altruism.
  • Friendship - ongoing state of mutual reciprocal
    altruism.
  • Gratitude - signal of thanks and acceptance of
    the size of repayment required.
  • Guilt - feeling of indebtedness to
    another/reminder of indebtedness.
  • Suspicion - result of calculation that a debt may
    not be repaid.
  • Anger - realisation that debt will not be repaid.
  • Revenge - desire for punishment of cheater.
  • Indignation - response to anothers accusation of
    cheating.
  • Forgiveness - hope that another desists from
    cheating.

109
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Week 6
  • Families Parenting
  • Aim
  • To introduce you to evolutionary explanations of
    family structure and discriminative parental
    solicitude.
  • Reward
  • You should be better able to generate and
    evaluate hypotheses about families and parenting
    styles.

110
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 6 - Families
Parenting
  • Running order
  • Parental Investment Theory r K selection
  • Mating Systems
  • The Cinderella Syndrome
  • Parent-Offspring conflict
  • Post-natal Depression
  • Oedipus Complex Sexy Sons.

111
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 6 - Families
Parenting
  • Parental Investment
  • def- Parental investment is any time or
    resources that an organism devotes to the care of
    an offspring that it could otherwise devote to
    activity related to reproductive success.
  • r and K selection
  • r selection is about quantity in r selectors
    PI per offspring is low
  • K selection is about quality in K selectors PI
    per offspring is high
  • In species that are K selected offspring are
  • relatively immature and vulnerable at birth
  • undergo a long period before puberty.
  • Consequently, the more K selected a species is
    the more there is a need for parental investment.

112
Evolutionary PsychologyWeek 6 - Families
Parenting
  • Sexual selection shapes how organisms behave
    toward the opposite sex.
  • There is a difference between the strategies of
    male and females.
  • The strategies form the mating system.
  • There are 4 possible systems
  • Monogamy uni-female/uni-male
  • Polygyny - multi-female/uni-male
  • Polyandry uni-female/multi-male
  • Promis
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