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Concepts in Comparative Politics

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Title: Concepts in Comparative Politics


1
Concepts in Comparative Politics
  • Spring 2013 Review!

2
Power, Sovereignty, Authority
  • Key Concepts

3
Power
  • The ability to direct the behavior of others
    through coercion, persuasion, or leadership

4
Authority
  • Legal right to exercise power on behalf of the
    society and/or government

5
Sovereignty
  • Independent legal authority over a population in
    a particular place
  • The degree in which a state can control its own
    territory and independently make and carry out
    policy

6
Sovereignty (cont.)
  • External sovereigntymeans the right to make
    binding agreements (treaties) with other states
  • Internal sovereigntymeans the right to determine
    matters having to do with ones own citizens

7
Nation
  • A group of people who identify themselves as
    belonging together because of cultural,
    geographic, or linguistic ties.
  • Nations need not, and often do not have,
    sovereignty in order to exist

8
State
  • A political system that has sovereignty
    (political power) exercised over a population in
    a defined geographic territory through a set of
    public institutions

9
Nation-State
  • An independent state that exists for a single
    nation, it is the ultimate goal of most
    nationalists
  • The cases in which national identification and
    sovereign political authority largely coincide

10
Regime
  • A political system with a specific pattern of
    relationship between the state, society, markets,
    and the world at large
  • A pattern of organization for a government (often
    described in a constitution or supreme law)

11
Types of Regimes
12
Democracy
  • A system of government by the whole population or
    all the eligible members of a state, typically
    through elected representatives
  • Refers to a political system in which citizens
    enjoy basic rights and in which leaders are
    elected in free and fair elections and
    accountable under the rule of law

13
Substantive/Liberal Democracy
  • Competitive Elections
  • Civil liberties
  • Rule of law
  • Neutrality of the judiciary
  • Open civil society
  • Civilian control of the military

14
Democratic Deficit
  • A democratic deficit occurs when ostensibly
    democratic organizations or institutions in fact
    fall short of fulfilling what are believed to be
    the principles of democracy

15
Illiberal Democracy
  • A procedural democratic regime where the
    citizenry does not benefit from the full array of
    rights and freedoms that one would expect in a
    democracy
  • Example competitive elections but lack of civil
    liberties and rights

16
Authoritarian Rule
  • A system of rule in which power depends not on
    popular legitimacy but on the coercive force of
    the political authorities

17
Oligarchy
  • A system of governance dominated by a small
    powerful and wealthy group in a state
  • Rule by few
  • Important political rights are withheld from the
    majority of the population
  • Example South Africa during apartheid

18
Military Rule
  • Military control of the government by armed forces

19
Totalitarian Systems
  • A political system in which the state attempts to
    exercise total control over all aspects of public
    and private life, including, the economy,
    culture, education, and social organizations,
    through an integrated system of ideological,
    economic and political control
  • Usually rely on terror as a means to exercise
    power

20
Totalitarian Systems (cont.)
  • Government systems in which the government
    constricts rights and privacy of its citizens in
    a severe manner
  • Most authoritarian and totalitarian regimes have
    lost legitimacy today

21
Theocracy
  • A state dominated by the clergy, who rule on the
    grounds that they are the only interpreters of
    Gods will and law

22
Government
  • The part of the state with legitimate public
    authority
  • The group of people and organizations that hold
    political authority in a state at any one time

23
Legitimacy
  • Defined as citizens belief in the governments
    right to rule
  • IT IS THE VIEW OF THE GOVERNMENT FROM THE BOTTOM
    UP!THE PEOPLES VIEW OF THEIR GOVERNMENT
  • A belief that a regime is a proper one and that
    the government has the right to exercise power
  • In the contemporary world, a state is said to
    possess legitimacy when it enjoys consent of the
    governed, which usually involves democratic
    procedures and the attempt to evenly distribute
    resources
  • Legitimacy of the political system also provides
    foundation for a successful political process
  • Legitimacy is based on different things in
    different countries

24
Rational-Legal
  • Legitimacy based on well-established laws and
    procedures
  • Code Law based on written rules/codes of law
    (China, Mexico, Russia)
  • Common Law based on tradition, past practices,
    and legal precedents (Britain)

25
Constitution
  • A supreme law that defines the structure of a
    nation-states regime and the legal processes
    governments must follow
  • When followed, this establishes rule of law
  • Neednt be one document
  • Contains a set of decision rules

26
Rule of Law
  • A governance system operating predictably under a
    known and transparent set of procedural rules
    (laws)
  • Also know as, constitutionalism
  • In all disputes, no matter how important or
    influential the person is, the piece of paper
    wins!

27
Charismatic Legitimacy
  • A form of authority based on the general
    populations personal attachment to a particular
    leader

28
Political Structures Institutions
  • Key Concepts

29
Supranational Organizations
  • Organizations in which nations are not totally
    sovereign actors
  • Examples
  • NATO
  • European Union
  • NAFTA
  • OPEC
  • United Nations

30
Three Basic Geographic Distributions of Power
  • Unitary System
  • Confederal System
  • Federal System
  • The difference between the three has to do with
    how power is distributed over a geographic area

31
Unitary State
  • Concentration of political power in a central
    government as opposed to federalism
  • EX The United Kingdom, Iran, China

32
Devolution
  • A process in a unitary system of delegating some
    decision making to local public bodies
  • The UK is doing this with Scotland and Wales.
  • This is also a sign of fragmentation
  • Usually done to reverse or quell separatist
    movements
  • Could be described as moving from a unitary
    system to a federal system

33
Confederal System
  • A system of government that spreads power among
    many sub-units (such as states), and has a weak
    central government
  • Ex European Union

34
Federal System
  • A system of governance in which political
    authority is shared between the national
    government and regional or state governments
  • EX The United States, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia
    (Asymmetric)

35
How Devolution Differs From Federalism
  • Power can be taken away in a unitary system (by
    the central government)
  • Subnational governments powers are not
    constitutionally protected
  • In a unitary system decentralization is not
    necessarily symmetrical
  • Local legislature/government can be dissolved in
    unitary systems but not in federal systems

36
Three Basic Forms of Governments
  • Parliamentary System
  • Presidential System
  • Mixed Presidential-Parliamentary System
  • The difference between the three has to do with
    the origins of power and the relationship between
    the executive branch and the other branches of
    government

37
Parliamentary System
  • A system of governance in which the head of
    government is chosen by and serves at the
    pleasure of the legislature
  • The legislature rules over all!
  • Prime Minister is NOT directly elected by people
    , but by the legislature
  • Because the prime minister and the cabinet are
    also leaders of the majority party in the
    legislature, no separation of powers exists
    between executive and legislative
    branchesinstead they are fused together
  • Fusion of Power!
  • Executive power is separated between Head of
    Government (PM) and the Head of State (royalty,
    president)

38
Parliamentary System
  • Characteristics
  • High Party Discipline
  • Majority party almost always gets its policies
    implemented
  • Cabinet is VERY powerfulinitiates legislation
    and makes policy
  • No fixed terms of officePM must call for
    election or as the result of a vote of no
    confidence

39
Fusion of Powers
  • A system of governance in which authority of
    government is concentrated in one body
  • The executive branch is born of the legislative
    branch of government
  • In Britain, Parliament is the supreme
    legislative, executive, and judicial authority
  • Common pattern in parliamentary systems

40
Vote of Confidence
  • A vote in parliament expressing support for a
    government
  • A government losing a vote of confidence is often
    expected to resign

41
Presidential System
  • An electoral system where citizens vote for
    legislative representatives as well as for
    executive branch leaders, and two branches
    function with separation of powers
  • The chief executive is elected in a national
    ballot and is independent of the legislative
    branch
  • The roles of the head of state and head of
    government are given to one personthe president
  • Three branches of government are therefore
    separate from one another and can check each
    others power

42
Presidential System
  • Characteristics
  • Separation of Power
  • Power shared equally between legislature and
    executive
  • Lower party discipline
  • Have fixed terms
  • Since power is diffused, policymaking process is
    slowed because one branch may question decision
    made by other groups

43
Separation of Power
  • An organization of political institutions within
    the state in which the executive, legislature,
    and judiciary have autonomous powers and no
    branch dominates the others
  • Common pattern in presidential systems

44
Checks and Balances
  • A governmental system of divided authority in
    which coequal branches can restrain each others
    actions

45
Impeachment
  • The process provided legislatures in most
    presidential systems that provides for the
    removal of presidents before their term is up,
    but typically only if they are guilty of serious
    criminal or other wrong doing

46
Mixed Presidential Parliamentary System
  • A democracy that has some characteristics of a
    presidential system and some characteristics of a
    parliamentary system
  • Also referred to as semi-presidential
  • System where a prime minister coexists with a
    president who is directly elected by the people
    and who holds a significant degree of power
  • Russia is perfect example of powerful president

47
Institutions
  • In order to carry out public policies, government
    structures such as parliaments, bureaucracies,
    and administrative agencies perform functions,
    which in turn enable the government to formulate,
    implement, and enforce policies
  • There are many types of institutions
    parliaments, congresses, administrative agencies,
    political parties, interest groups, legislatures

48
Key Parts of All Governments
  • Executive
  • Legislature
  • Judiciary
  • Bureaucracy
  • All of AP6 countries have these structures, how
    they function varies greatly

49
Executive
  • The executive office carries out the laws and
    policies of the state
  • The chief executive is the most important person
    in the policymaking process, initiating new
    policies and playing an important role in their
    adoption
  • Presidential system has veto power, in
    parliamentary system does not
  • Central authority on in foreign policy

50
Head of State
  • The head of state is a role that symbolizes the
    and represents the people, both nationally and
    internationally, and may or may not have any real
    policy making power
  • The chief public representative of a state
  • Commonly royalty or a president
  • KEY POINT In presidential systems the president
    is both the head of government and the head of
    state

51
Head of Government
  • The office and the person occupying the office
    charged with leading the operation of a
    government
  • The head of government deals with the everyday
    tasks of running the state and usually directs
    the activities of other members of the executive
    branch
  • In Britain, the Queen is Head of State and the
    Prime Minister is the Head of Government
  • In the U.S., the president is both head of
    government an head of state

52
Cabinet
  • Refers to the group of leaders (often called
    ministers or secretaries) of all major
    departments (sometimes called ministries) into
    which the executive branch is divided
  • The cabinet is the most important decision-making
    body in most political systems
  • In parliamentary systems the cabinet is the key
    organization that forms policy proposals
  • The cabinet in parliamentary systems is typically
    selected by the head of government can be
    dismissed when a government loses a vote of
    confidence
  • In presidential systems, the cabinet is selected
    by and can be dismissed by the president

53
Legislature
  • The legislative is the branch of government
    charged with making laws
  • Either bicameral or unicameral

54
Bicameral Legislature
  • A legislature with two houses with decision
    making power
  • Most common form of legislature
  • Usually there is an upper and lower house
  • Found almost always in federal systems
  • EX UK (House of Lords House of Commons)
    Russia (Federation Council Duma) Mexico
    (Senate Chamber of Deputies) Nigeria (Senate
    House of Reps)

55
Unicameral Legislature
  • A legislature with only one house with decision
    making power
  • Examples China (The National Peoples Congress),
    Iran (Majles)

56
Judicial Review
  • The power of the judiciary to rule on whether
    laws and government policies are consistent with
    the constitution or existing laws

57
Bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracies consist of agencies that generally
    implement government policy
  • In democracies provide continuity over time
  • In authoritarian regimes, head of govt
    exercises control patronage system
  • Because of the complexity of legislation,
    bureaucracies often play a quasi legislative role
    in making policy
  • Bureaucrats are the experts in their field

58
Bureaucracy
  • Basic characteristics of
  • Non-elected positionsappointed
  • Impersonal, efficient structures, but become
    inefficient as they grow
  • Formal qualifications for jobs necessary
  • Hierarchical organization

59
Civil Service
  • A system of carefully describing tasks involved
    in performing government jobs, evaluating
    applicants for those jobs (civil service exams),
    and hiring people from among those applicants
    based on skills and experience rather than
    political factors
  • These are bureaucrats (internally) and diplomats
    (externally)

60
Electoral Systems Party Systems
  • Key Concepts

61
Electoral System
  • A legal system for making democratic choices
  • Create two-party, three-party, multiparty systems
  • Rules by which elections are conducted
  • Determine who can vote, how people vote, and how
    the votes get counted
  • Two Main Kinds of Systems
  • Competitive
  • Single Member District Plurality (SMDP) and
    (First-Past-the-Post)
  • Proportional Representation (PR)
  • Authoritarian

62
Plurality
  • The number of votes cast for a candidate who
    receives more than any other candidate but does
    not receive an absolute majority
  • More than anyone else, but under 50.

63
Single Member District Plurality
  • An electoral system in which candidates run for a
    single seat from a specific geographic districts
  • An electoral system in which voters chose an
    individual running for office in a single
    legislative district (also called first past the
    post) Example U.K. and United States
  • The winner is the person who receives the MOST
    votes, whether or NOT that is a majority
  • Increase the likelihood of a two-party state
  • Common in the United States, rarely used in
    continental Europe or in Latin America
  • A variation on this is the majority runoff system
    (or double ballot)

64
First-Past-the-Post
  • An electoral system in which winners are
    determined by which candidate receives the
    largest number of votes (regardless of whether or
    not a majority is received)
  • SAME as Single Member District Plurality!

65
Two (Double) Ballot System
  • An electoral system where two rounds of voting
    may take places to ensure a majority winner
  • Several candidates my be on first ballot, if no
    majority is chose, second ballot is run-off of
    top two vote getters
  • Also called the majority runoff system

66
Proportional Representation (PR)
  • An electoral system in which voters select
    parties rather than individual candidates and
    parties are represented in legislatures in
    proportion to the shares of votes they win
  • Representatives are elected based on the
    proportion of the electorate that voted for them
  • Encourages a multi-party system
  • Closed-list PR system voters dont know people
    chosen by party
  • Open-list PR System voters chose from list of
    candidates given by parties

67
Proportional Representation (PR)
  • How Proportional Representation system works
  • A country is divided into a few large sections
  • The competing parties offer lists of candidates
  • The number of legislative representatives a party
    wins depends on the overall proportion of the
    votes it receives
  • Sometimes parties must meet a minimum threshold
    of votes in order to receive any seats at all (5
    or 7)
  • KEY POINT PR system leads to multiparty
    legislatures
  • (Exception Russias raising of threshold to 7
    has resulted in less representation of regional
    parties)

68
Minimum Winning Threshold
  • The minimum percentage of votes a party must
    receive in order to be seated in a legislature
  • Sometimes parties must meet a minimum threshold
    of votes in order to receive any seats at all (5
    or 7)

69
Duvergers Law
  • Maurice Duverger French political scientist
  • States that there is a systematic relationship
    between electoral systems and party systems, so
    that single-member district plurality (SMDP)
    election systems (first past the post) tend to
    create two-party systems in the legislature,
    while proportional representation (PR) electoral
    systems generate multiparty systems
  • SMDP (first past the post) Two Party System
  • Proportional Representation Multiparty System

70
Duvergers Law
  • Mechanical Effect In SMDP systems, second and
    third place finishers in each district get NO
    representation in legislature
  • Psychological Effect In SMDP, people dont want
    to vote for a known loser, so they chose their
    second or third choice, so as to block their
    worst case scenario
  • Strategic Voting The act of voting for your
    second or third preference to avoid an even worse
    case scenario
  • Example Voting Democrat instead of Green, so as
    to avoid Republicans gaining seats in legislature
    (Strategic voting)

71
Competitive Party Systems
  • Political systems in which parties can form and
    compete freely
  • The role of competitive parties in interest
    aggregation depends on the type of party system
  • Interest aggregation in a competitive party
    system occurs in several stages
  • Parties develop positions that they believe are
    backed by a large block of voters
  • In a two party system, it is important for a
    party to win the majority, so targeting the
    center of the electorate is often necessary to
    win enough votes.
  • In systems with many parties, each party seeks a
    distinctive and cohesive electoral base, meaning
    that party policies may reflect the preferences
    of specific groups

72
Multiparty System
  • A party system with several important political
    parties, none of which generally gains a majority
    of the seats in the national
  • Mexico, Nigeria

73
Two-Party System
  • A party system in which two main parties compete
    for majority control of the government
  • Small parties may exist but play no significant
    role in national electoral outcomes
  • UK

74
One-Party Dominant System
  • A party system in which one large party directs
    the political system, but small parties exist and
    may compete in elections
  • Russia ( Mexico in the past under the PRI)

75
One-Party System
  • A party system in which one political party
    controls the government and voters have no option
    to choose an opposition party (China)

76
Elite Recruitment
  • Refers to the selection of people for political
    activity and government offices
  • In a democracy, competitive elections play a
    major role in political recruitment
  • In authoritarian systems, recruitment may be
    dominated by a single party, as in China, or
    unelected religious leaders, as in Iran

77
Referendum
  • A general vote by the electorate on a single
    political question that has been referred to them
    for a direct decision

78
Interest Articulation
  • The methods by which citizens and groups can
    express their desires and make demands upon
    government (political participation, lobbying,
    protests, etc.)
  • Involves individuals and groups expressing their
    needs and demands

79
Interest Aggregation
  • Ways in which demands of citizens and groups are
    combined into proposed policy packages
    (leadership, political parties, etc)

80
Interest Articulation
  • The most common form is voting in an
    electionfound in democracies and totalitarian
    regimes
  • Other forms of interest articulation community
    groups, political groups, protests, any from of
    group which articulates its opinion to the
    government
  • In large, established political systems, formal
    interest groups are a primary means of
    articulating political interests
  • As societies become more complex and scope of
    government grows, quantity and methods to
    articulate public interests have grown as well

81
Pluralist Interest Group Systems
  • Multiple groups may represent a single society
    interest.
  • There is a clear separation between interest
    groups and the government
  • Group membership is voluntary and limited
  • Groups often have a loose or decentralized
    organizational structure
  • United States is perfect example

82
Corporatism
  • A state in which interest groups become an
    institutional part of the political structure
  • Has nothing to do with business! Zero! Get that
    out of your mind!

83
Neo-Corporatist Interest Group Systems
  • A single peak association normally represents
    each societal interest
  • Membership in the peak association is often
    compulsory and nearly universal
  • Peak associations are centrally organized and
    direct the actions of their members
  • Interest groups are often systematically involved
    in making and implementing policy
  • Key Point Interest group part of policy process!

84
Controlled Interest Group Systems
  • There is a single group for each social sector
  • Membership is often compulsory
  • Each group is normally hierarchically organized
  • Groups are controlled by the government or its
    agents in order to mobilize support for
    government policy (Communism!)
  • Key Point Groups exist to facilitate government
    control of society!

85
Patron/Client Networks
  • A usually informal alliance between a person
    holding power and less powerful or lower status
    people
  • The powerful patron provides power, status, jobs,
    land, goods, and/or protection in exchange for
    loyalty and political support
  • Also Clientelism, Prebendalism

86
Citizens,Society, the State
  • Key Concepts

87
Ethnicity
  • Refers to a group who share a belief in their
    common descent and common shared traditions
  • Ethnic groups have been the source of a large
    number of political conflicts around the world
  • Language can be a source of social division that
    may or may not be associated with ethnicity

88
Political Cleavages
  • Factors that separate groups within a society
  • May be based on ethnicity, religion, social
    class, region, etc
  • The wider and deeper the cleavages, the less
    unified the society
  • Coinciding Cleavages cleavages which reinforce
    each other (pit the same people against each
    other on many different issues)
  • Cross-cutting Cleavages when the groups that
    are divided share a common interest on one or
    more issues

89
Political Culture
  • The collection of history, values, beliefs,
    assumptions, attitudes, traditions, and symbols
    that define and influence political behavior
    within a state
  • The more a political culture is shared, the
    easier it is to live in peaceful coexistence and
    engage in activities for mutual gain, such as
    commerce

90
Consensual Political Culture
  • Citizens tend to agree on the appropriate means
    of making political decisions and to agree on the
    major problems facing society and how to solve
    them

91
Conflictual Political Culture
  • The citizens are sharply divided, often on both
    the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to
    major problems
  • When a country is deeply divided in political
    attitudes, distinctive political subcultures may
    develop.

92
Political Efficacy
  • Political efficacy is a citizens belief that he
    or she can understand and influence government or
    political affairs
  • It indicates a citizens' faith and trust in
    government and their own belief that they can
    understand and influence political affairs

93
Transparency
  • Transparent government operates openly
  • More transparent, less corruption

94
Social Capital
  • Refers to skills, norms, and networks that are a
    part of civil society and facilitate the ability
    to solve economic and political problems

95
Political Socialization
  • How citizens learn about politics in their
    country it sticks!!
  • Involves schools, families, communications,
    media, religious organizations, and all the
    various political structures that develop,
    reinforce, and transform the political culture,
    the attitudes of political significance in the
    society

96
Political Protest
  • Can also focus political interests and can have
    influence on public policy
  • Tend to be high-pressure activities that can both
    mobilize the public and pressure political elites
  • Grassroots politics, or people working together
    to address a common problem, represents an other

97
Civil Society
  • Is a society in which people are involved in
    social and political interactions free of state
    control or regulation
  • Refers to the space occupied by voluntary
    associations outside of state control
  • THE GOVERNMENT DECIDES! NOT THE CITIZENS!
  • For example, professional associations, trade
    unions, student groups, womens groups, religious
    bodies and other voluntary association groups

98
Civil Society
  • Any type of citizen-organized group is considered
    to be a part of civil society
  • This includes community groups, voluntary
    organizations, and religious groups
  • It could also include a group that is not so
    civil, like an anti-government group.
  • Civil society is linked to globalization, as
    groups connect to other groups in the global
    community, such as groups within the
    environmental movement

99
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
  • Global civil society
  • Examples Doctors Without Borders, Amnesty
    International, Red Cross

100
Post Materialist Values
  • Beliefs in the importance of policy goals beyond
    ones immediate self-interest, as well as ones
    prosperity and security
  • Examples Environmentalism and cultural
    diversity
  • Citizens in industrialized democracies are more
    likely to have higher order concerns, such as
    improving education and the environment
  • Another major trend in political culture

101
Political Economic Change
  • Key Concepts

102
Reform
  • Method of changing some of the methods that
    political/economic leaders use to reach goals
    that society generally accepts
  • Does not advocate overthrowing basic institutions

103
Revolution
  • A process by which a political regime is
    overthrown and replaced because of a broad
    popular support and participation in the process
  • A forcible overthrow of a government or social
    order for a new system

104
Coup Detat
  • A forceful replacement of a regime or a
    government by a small elite group or groups
  • Use of force, often by military

105
Democratization
  • The spread of representative governments to more
    countries and the process of making governments
    more representative

106
Political Liberalization
  • Process by which a state goes from procedural
    democracy to substantive democracy

107
Market Economy
  • Economy in which laws of supply and demand
    determine allocation of resources
  • Private ownership of resources/property

108
Command Economy
  • Economy in which the state owns most economic
    resources and makes all major economic decisions

109
Economic Liberalization
  • Process of limiting the power of the state over
    private property and market forces

110
Privatization
  • Transfer of state-owned property to private
    ownership

111
Neoliberalism
  • Term used to describe government policies aiming
    to promote free competition among business firms
    within the market
  • Includes privatization, reducing trade barriers,
    balancing government budgets, and reducing social
    spending

112
Import Substitution Industrialization
  • Employs high tariffs to protect locally produced
    goods from foreign competition, govt ownership of
    key industries, govt subsidies to domestic
    industries

113
Structural Adjustment Programs
  • World Bank programs which offer financial and
    management aid to poor countries while demanding
    privatization, trade liberalization, and
    governmental fiscal restraint

114
Globalization
  • The increasing interconnectedness and
    interdependence of people, cultures, economies,
    and nation-states facilitated by technology,
    trade, and cultural diffusion

115
Fragmentation
  • The process or state of breaking or being broken
    into small or separate parts

116
Modernization
  • The major cultural trend that has transformed the
    world is modernization
  • World wide more people are moving to cities and
    are exposed to modern political cultures, which
    have an impact on citizens attitudes

117
Modernization Theory
  • The view that a countrys move from
    underdevelopment to modernization can be
    understood from and modeled after development in
    the West

118
Public Policy
  • Key Concepts

119
Policymaking
  • Policymaking is the conversion of social interest
    and demands into authoritative public decisions
  • Rules usually set by constitution

120
Policy Implementation
  • The carrying out and enforcement of public
    policies

121
Rentier State
  • A country that obtains much of its revenue from
    the export of oil or other natural resources
  • Impact Government doesnt have to be
    accountable to citizens for income

122
Rent-seeking
  • The practice of political leaders who, for the
    purposes of remaining in a position of power,
    rent public access (resources or tax support
    services) to patrons who profit from those public
    assets

123
Economic Indicators
124
GDP
  • Gross Domestic Product
  • All the goods and services produced by a
    countrys economy in a given year, excluding
    income earned outside country

125
GNP
  • Gross National Product
  • GNP is the total economic output of a country per
    person
  • Like GDP, but also includes income citizens
    earned outside the country
  • Used to compare the economic status of a country

126
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
  • A different measure of the economic status of a
    country, and it takes into account differences in
    price levels from one country to another

127
GINI Index
  • Measures the amount of economic inequality in a
    society

128
Human Development Index (HDI)
  • Measures the well-being of a countrys people by
    factoring in adult literacy, life expectancy,
    educational enrollment and GDP

129
Welfare State
  • A state which provides a wide array of social
    services to its members

130
Freedom House
  • Measures political rights civil liberties
  • Free, Partly Free, Not Free
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