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Low Cost Green Building Materials selection Presented By Chirag Sanghvi CP-1911 25-08-2011 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Low%20Cost%20Green%20Building%20Materials%20selection

Low Cost Green Building Materials selection
  • Define Green Building Materials
  • Advantages Of Green Materials
  • Rating System Of Materials
  • Economic Benefits
  • Selection criteria For Green materials
  • Classification Of Materials

  • A material can be considered GREEN if-
  • It is made up of renewable materials.
  • It has minimum possible environmental cost.
  • It has low energy utilization in its
    manufacturing as well as its functioning.
  • It is easily recyclable.
  • It is efficient in the long run.

Why Green Materials?
  • Current construction practices consume over 3
    billion tons of raw materials per year.
  • Increased need to conserve non-renewable
  • Reduce environmental impact of building and
    construction activities.
  • National, State, and Local Funding Opportunities

Advantages of Green Materials
  • Improved Energy Conservation
  • Improved indoor environment
  • Air Quality
  • Occupant Health
  • Reduced operations cost
  • Lower environmental Impact

Green Building Materials
Selection Criteria
  • Resource Efficiency
  • Recycled content
  • Renewable
  • Efficient manufacturing process
  • Local availability
  • Easily recyclable
  • Recyclable Packaging
  • Product Durability
  • Energy Conservation
  • Water Conservation

Green Building Materials
Selection Criteria- cont
  • Indoor Environmental Quality
  • Moisture resistant
  • Minimal Emissions (VOC)
  • Installation has low (VOC)
  • Healthy cleaning or maintenance
  • Cost Efficient
  • Installation
  • Maintenance
  • Within specifications of project budget

Green Building Materials
How are materials rated?
  • U.S. Green Building Council
  • Non-profit organization committed to expanding
    sustainable building practices
  • LEED- Leadership in Energy Environmental Design
  • Developed rating systems for construction
    projects in 2000
  • Voluntary consensus based standards
  • Design and Construction Practices meeting
    specified standards reducing negative impacts on
    occupants and environment
  • Project Certification Process using appropriate
    comprehensive rating system, projects earn
    credits by meeting technical requirements

Green Building Materials
Economic benefits
  • The economic benefits of green buildings should
    be understood from the point of view of operation
    of the building and the resultant savings in its
  • At the construction stage, monetary savings can
    result from choice of building materials The
    First CostsSavings costs and savings from
    incorporating green features into a building
  • Life-Cycle Costs/Savings costs/savings over a
    buildings or features useful life
  • The first cost of the green buildings vary
    significantly depending on specific project
    goals. While there are many significant benefits
    that are no additional cost (like no west
    facing openings) , some features will cost more
    in both design and material cost.

  • It is estimated that the design and building of a
    commercial building constitutes just 2 of the
    overall cost in 30 years. The rest of the 98
    comprises of operations, maintenance, finance and
    employee costs.

A design approach of using appropriate building
systems may result in actual lowering of first
costs by as much as 20. In comparison estimates
for additional first cost of mainstream green
buildings are as low as 0-3, for LEED Certified,
to 10 or more for higher LEED ratings
  • Local availability of materials.
  • Embodied energy of materials.
  • of recycled/waste materials used.
  • Rapidly renewable materials.
  • Contribution in energy efficiency of building.
  • Recyclability of materials.
  • Durability
  • Environmental Impact

Local availability of materials
  • As far as possible locally available materials
    are to be preferred so as to minimize the energy
    spent in transportation of the building
    materials. Energy consumed in transportation
    should be considered as total energy spent on
    transporting materials starting from the place of

Rating Criteria for Availability of materials,
near the site( 2points)
  • Supplier between 0-5 km 2 points
  • Supplier between 5-10 km 1.8 points
  • Supplier between 10-20 km 1.5 points
  • Supplier between 20-30 km 1.3 points
  • Supplier between 30-50 km 1 point
  • Supplier between 50-75 km 0.8 points
  • Supplier between 75-100 km 0.6 points
  • Supplier between 100-250 km 0.4 points
  • Supplier between 250-1000 km 0.2 points
  • Supplier at a distance greater than 1000 km 0

Embodied energy of materials
  • Embodied energy is an assessment of the energy
    required to manufacture any building material.
    This include energy required to extract raw
    materials from nature, energy used to transport
    raw materials to manufacturing unit and the
    energy used in manufacturing activities to
    provide a finished product.

Rating Criteria for the Embodied energy of
Materials ( 2 points)
  • Benchmark Value 5MJ/Kg
  • Available Points on Benchmark 1
  • Embodied Energy between Benchmark to -10 1.2
  • Embodied Energy between -10 to -25 of
    Benchmark 1.3 Points
  • Embodied Energy between -25 to -50 of
    Benchmark 1.4 Points
  • Embodied Energy between -50 to -75 of
    Benchmark 1.6 Points
  • Embodied Energy between -75 to -100 of
    Benchmark 2.0 Points
  • Embodied Energy between Benchmark to 25 of
    Benchmark 0.9 Points
  • Embodied Energy between 25 to 50 of Benchmark
    0.8 Points
  • Embodied Energy between 50 to 75 of Benchmark
    0.7 Points
  • Embodied Energy between 75 to 100 of Benchmark
    0.5 Points
  • Embodied Energy between 100 to 200 of
    Benchmark 0.4 Points
  • Embodied Energy between 200 to 300 of
    Benchmark 0.3 Points
  • Embodied Energy between 300 to 400 of
    Benchmark 0.1 Points
  • Embodied Energy Above 400 of Benchmark 0 Points

Percentage of recycled/waste materials used
  • Building materials can be manufactured using
    recycled materials or using waste materials. Use
    of recycled materials helps the environment and
    the economy in several ways. A significant effect
    is that of lessening the need for manufacture
    with virgin, non-renewable resources, which saves
    precious resources, energy and cost.

Percentage of Recycled materials (1 point)
  • If a material rather than using new materials
    uses up recycled materials then it qualifies as a
    potential green material. For e.g.- If A and B
    are two wastes or two recycled materials and if
    material C is made up of material A and B in some
    proportion than material C qualifies to obtain
    points under this criteria.
  • The percentage of recycled material can be worked
    out as follows Calculate the amount of such
    materials in 1m3 of new material and find out its
    proportion in m3. Then divide the two and you can
    establish how much percentage of recycled
    materials is contained in a new material.
  • The no of points awarded are found by the
    following formula
  • No of Points ( of Recyclable

Use of renewable materials
  • Materials manufactured or materials with
    resources that are renewable (i.e. wood or solar
    power) rather than non-renewable (i.e. fossil
    fuels) shall be preferred.

Rapidly Renewable Materials ( 1 point)
  • If the material has the capability of being
    renewed in a short period of time then the
    material is termed as a Rapidly Renewable
    material and is liable to get extra points as a
    green material.
  • If the material is renewed in a cycle of 10 years
    or shorter then it can be termed as a good
    rapidly renewable material and it gets 1 point in
    the scale.
  • If the material has a higher period of renew
    ability then it gets points relative to its
    period, i.e. If it is 11 years then points
    obtained are 0.9 and if 12 years then 0.8 and so
    on up to 19 years.
  • For a period of 20 or more years no points are
    awarded and the material is termed as a normal
    renewable material.

Contribution in Energy Efficiency of buildings
  • Construction and operation of buildings utilizing
    major portion of total energy produced. With
    little careful efforts, designers and builders
    can reduce energy loads on structures, reducing
    energy requirements and the strain on natural
    resources. With proper orientation of building
    with reference to solar radiation to receive
    maximum day lighting, operable windows for
    natural cross-ventilation, use of passive cooling
    techniques, (eliminating or lessening the need
    for air conditioning), walling unit with lower U
    values, roof insulation, water-saving devices and
    more efficient appliances can all work to lessen
    energy needs. Consideration of alternate energy
    source use, such as wind, solar and tidal power,
    can help alleviate reliance on traditional fossil
    fuel sources.

Energy Efficiency (1 point)
  • Energy Efficiency can be judged on the basis of
    U-value of the material. After studying U-values
    of various materials and studying their effects
    we found that for the value of 2.31 W/m-K no
    effect on interior temperature is caused due to
    exterior temperature. So a Benchmark U-value is
    adopted as 2.31 W/m-K.
  • So if a material is having a U-value lower than
    this then it can get a maximum of 1 point and if
    it is higher than the benchmark then it does not
    get any points in this criteria.

Recyclability of materials
  • The recyclability of the materials can be judged
    from quantity of materials recovered for re-use
    after the useful life of materials/products or
    after demolition of the building.

Criteria for the Recyclability of Materials (3
  • If the material is recyclable? gt90 then 3
  • If the material is recyclable? gt80 and lt90 then
    2.5 points
  • If the material is recyclable ? gt60 and lt80
    then 2 points
  • If the material is recyclable ? gt40 and lt60
    then 1.5 points
  • If the material is recyclable ? gt20 and lt40
    then 1 points
  • If the material is recyclable ? gt0 and lt20 then
    0 points
  • 0 marks are given to materials from 0 to 20. It
    may happen that most of the times that the cost
    of recycling is less than the cost of the new
    materials but if it is vice versa than the
    recycling of the material has no meaning.

  • Materials which are long lasting and needing
    little maintenance are preferred. Material
    replacement puts a strain on the earth, its
    resources and inhabitants. In making materials
    more durable and easy to maintain, manufacturers
    can help in eliminating a costly, damaging and
    time-consuming process of replacement.

Durability Criteria(1 point)
  • Material life is greater than 80 years 1 point
  • Material life between 60-80 years 0.8 points
  • Material life between 40-60 years 0.6 points
  • Material life between 20-40 years 0.4 points
  • Material life between 5-20 years 0.3 points
  • Material life between 1-5 years 0.2 points
  • Material life less than 1 year 0.1 points

Environmental Impact
  • All materials used for construction of buildings
    must not harm the environment, pollute air or
    water, or cause damage to the earth, its
    inhabitants and its ecosystems during
    manufacturing process, and also during use or
    disposal after end of life. Material should be
    non-toxic and contribute to good indoor air

Environmental Impact( 0.5 to -2 points)
  • Disposal conditions of a material can be
    classified into four and points are allocated on
    that basis. The conditions are as follows
  • If the material is degraded by itself and may or
    may not be useful for alternate usage but in now
    way produces any harmful materials then it gets
    0.5 points.
  • If the material only occupies land but in no way
    produces any harmful or hazardous waste then it
    gets 0 points. (Non-Biodegradable)
  • If the material pollutes the land and degrades
    the soil quality then the material gets -1 point.
  • If the material produces Hazardous or toxic
    materials after disposal or a toxic leachate
    (such that it pollutes the Ground Water Table)
    then the material will get -2 points.
  • If during incineration it produces carcinogens
    like Dioxin or Furans then the material is
    outright rejected as green material.

Classification of materials
  • Structural/Partition Material
  • Ventilation/Thermal Insulation
  • Finishing Materials/Paints
  • Materials for furniture

Structural/Partition materials
  • Mud Brick
  • The production of simple earth blocks only
    requires around one thousand of the energy needed
    to fire bricks, and even in cases where earth is
    stabilized with cement it is no more than a sixth
    per kg of material.

  • Fly ash brick
  • In India alone, approximately 100 million
    tones are generated per year. The construction
    technique and process is improved as the material
    allows for lighter structures, shallower
    foundations, less expensive transport costs with
    environmental benefits as fewer emissions are
    produced and the speed of setting is quicker for
    comparative standard bricks, and less usage of
    cement and steel reinforcement.

  • Claytech
  • Claytech bricks are comprised of clay, sand
    and straw. As they are hand pressed and unfired,
    they are unsuitable for load bearing walls.
    Benefits do include good acoustic properties,
    thermal qualities that help regulate temperature
    and humidity, the clay absorbs and diffuses water
    vapor, absorbs odors and have a low embodied

Ventilation/Thermal insulation materials
  • Flax Insulation
  • Flax is a plant native to the region
    extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India
    and China. Natural insulation can be made from
    100 flax fibers by matting them together into a
    non-woven process and then utilizing their
    properties for insulation in lofts or wall
    cavities. The material has very low embodied
    energy and the thermal conductivity of flax
    insulation is 0.037 W/mK, making it ideal for
    breathable constructions.

  • Straw and Resin Panels
  • Using agricultural waste, such as straw, a
    binder is applied that is made up of local resins
    to form insulating panels that can be easily
    installed under and between existing corrugated
    metal sheeting and lightweight corrugated iron
    used as roofing.

  • Bamboo Screens
  • The use of bamboo as a building material like
    sunshades is seen in many places.The big value of
    bamboo screens is the fact that it is open to
    daylight and air. So the gap between screen and
    window is very well ventilated. The rays of
    sunlight entering through the screens look nice
    but dont result in overheating of the house.

Fenestration and glazing systems
  • Fenestration is provided for the purposes of heat
    gain, daylighting and ventilation. Their pattern
    and configuration form an important aspect of
    building design and its energy requirement.
    Appropriate design of openings and shading
    devices helps to minimize the effects of sun and
    wind or allow them into a building. Ventilation
    lets fresh air in and hot air out, resulting in
  • Glazing is generally transparent to solar
    radiation but opaque to long wave radiation. This
    characteristic can be used to heat a buildings
    interior by promoting heat gain. This is
    desirable in winter, but may cause overheating in
    summer. This overheating through large
    aesthetic-driven areas of exposed glass is
    commonly observed in commercial buildings in
    India today and in turn results in excessive
    loads on air conditioning systems. For reducing
    solar gain during summer, window size should be
    kept minimum in the hot and dry regions.
  • For example, in Ahmadabad, the number of
    uncomfortable hours in a year can be reduced by
    as much as 35 if glazing is taken as 10 of the
    floor area instead of, say, 20.

  • Fig 2.14 Transmission properties of reflecting
    glass (6mm thick).
  • The amount of light entering a building needs to
    be effectively controlled to maintain a suitable
    level of comfort. This can be achieved through
    proprietary systems such as openable shutters and
    movable covers like curtains or Venetian blinds.
    Tinted glazing with surface coatings can also be
    used to control solar transmission, absorption
    and reflection. Surface coatings can reduce the
    transmission of solar radiation through a piece
    of 6mm thick absorbing glass by about 45.
    Reflective glass is usually achieved by a layer
    of reflective material or a low emittance layer.
    Glazing of these types can reduce heat gain
    without obstructing views from the building. They
    are usually used for windows which cannot be
    shaded externally.  

(No Transcript)
Brick Jaali and Hollow bricks
Finishing materials/paints
  • Tire Veneer
  • In the retreading process, the old tread is
    removed by grinding and the resulting dust is
    termed buffings. These buffings are non-laminated
    polymerically bound black SBR rubber. Areas of
    use extend to areas such as sports and
    recreation, animal housing and high traffic areas
    outdoors and a variety of consumer products,
    vibration dampeners and furniture surfaces

  • Eco Paint
  • Ecopaint is a new paint has been developed, to
    act as a sponge for some of the most noxious
    gases (NOx) released in vehicle exhaust that can
    lead to respiratory problems and triggers smog.
    The paints base is polysiloxane, a silicon-based
    polymer.Embedded are 30 nanometre wide spherical
    nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and calcium
    carbonate being so small makes it possible for
    the paint to appear clear, with the possibility
    to add pigment for desired effects.

  • Durat
  • Durat is a solid polyester based material used
    for custom
  • made interior surfaces and molds. The content
  • recycled plastics and is itself 100 recyclable.
    The product
  • is very durable, resistant to wear, humidity,
    chemicals and
  • can be renewed by slight sanding. The material is
    manufactured in sheets typically, but can
    create sink models and custom made sanitary

Materials for furniture
  • Coir CNSL Board
  • The Coir-CNSL Board is a wood alternative which
    can be used for surfacing, door and window
    shutters, partitioning, false ceiling, panelling,
    furniture, cabinets, packaging, etc. Both the
    starting materials i.e. coconut fibre and cashew
    nut shell liquid are available substantially in
    coastal areas and are renewable agro-wastes. Its
    30 cheaper then commercially available

  • Dakota Burl
  • Dakota Burl composite is a unique bio-based
  • which exhibits the same aesthetic qualities of
  • burled woods. The material is created from an
    agricultural fiber and sunflower hulls. The
    material is primarily for interior use, such as
    tables and counters, cabinetry, furniture and
    similar architectural applications.

  • Palm Fiberboard
  • Palm trees are dense throughout most tropical and
    subtropical regions. Stripped palm stalks, palm
    leaves and the tree trunk are made waste in vast
    quantities after harvesting oil takes place.
    Optimizing various stages of the process for
    pulping the fibers they may be made into
    Fiberboards. They are used in furniture industry.
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