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Principles of Cell Biology

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Resource: 2004. Johnson, George B. and Peter H. Raven. Biology. Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston. Unit 1 Principles of Cell Biology Chapter 1: Biology and You Chapter 2 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Cell Biology


1
Unit 1
Resource 2004. Johnson, George B. and Peter H.
Raven. Biology. Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston.
  • Principles of Cell Biology

2
  • Chapter 1 Biology and You
  • Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life
  • Chapter 3 Cell Structure
  • Chapter 4 Cells and Their Environment
  • Chapter 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular
    Respiration

3
Chapter 1
  • Biology and You

4
Section 1
  • Themes of Biology

5
Introduction
  • Organisms
  • - living things
  • Biology
  • - is the study of life

6
Characteristics of Living Organisms
  • All living things share seven characteristics
  • composed of one or more cells
  • is able to reproduce
  • obtains and uses energy (to run the processes of
    life)
  • maintains a constant internal environment

7
  • 5. passes on traits to offspring
  • 6. responds and adjusts to the environment
  • 7. grows and develops
  • Life
  • - is a defined by the presence of all of the
    characteristics of living organisms at some stage
    in an organisms life.
  • Science
  • from Latin for to know, is a systematic process
    of inquiry

8
Unifying Themes of Biology
  • Theme 1 Cellular Structure and Function
  • Theme 2 Reproduction
  • Theme 3 Metabolism
  • Theme 4 Homeostasis
  • Theme 5 Heredity
  • Theme 6 Evolution
  • Theme 7 Interdependence

9
Theme 1 Cellular Structure and Function
  • Cells
  • are highly organized, tiny structures with thin
    coverings called membranes.
  • Smallest unit capable of all life functions.
  • The basic structure of cells is the same in all
    organisms, although some cells are more complex
    than others

10
Theme 2 Reproduction
  • Reproduction
  • the process by which organisms make more of their
    own kind from one generation to the next
  • Metabolism
  • is the sum of all the chemical reactions carried
    out in an organism

Theme 3 Metabolism
11
Theme 4 Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis
  • the maintenance of stable internal conditions in
    spite of changes in the external environment

12
Theme 5 Heredity
  • Gene
  • basic unit of heredity
  • are coded in a molecule called deoxyribonucleic
    acid (DNA) and determine an organisms traits
  • Heredity
  • - is the passing of traits from parent to
    offspring

13
  • Mutations
  • a change in the DNA of a gene
  • majority are harmful though a few are helpful
  • when occur in sex cells they are passed on to
    other generations
  • when occur in body cells they are not passed on
    (but may result in cancers)

14
Theme 6 Evolution
  • Evolution
  • change in the inherited characteristics of
    species over generations
  • Species
  • is a group of genetically similar organism that
    can produce fertile offspring
  • Natural Selection
  • the process in which organisms with favorable
    traits are more likely to survive and reproduce

15
Theme 7 Interdependence
  • Biological Community
  • - is a group of interacting organism
  • Ecology
  • the study of the interactions of organisms with
    one another and with the nonliving part of their
    environment
  • Interdependence
  • the idea that all organisms are dependent on one
    another and their environment

16
Section 2
  • Biology in Your World

17
Solving Real-World Problems
18
Preserving Our Environment
  • Conservation
  • planned management of natural resources
  • Preservation
  • to maintain

19
Improving the Food Supply
  • Genetic Engineering
  • involves the transfer of genes from one organism
    to another, which changes the heredity
    information in its cells

20
Understanding the Human Genome
  • Genome
  • the complete genetic material contained in an
    individual
  • in April of 2003 the mapping of the human genome
    was complete

21
Fighting Disease
22
AIDS
  • HIV
  • causes AIDS
  • a virus that attacks and destroys the human
    immune system

23
Cancer
  • Cancer
  • is a growth defect in cells, a breakdown of the
    mechanism that controls cell division

24
Emerging Disease
  • West Nile
  • a virus that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can
    infect other animas such as humans, birds etc
  • Mad Cow
  • a fatal disease of cattle caused by eating the
    body parts of infected animals
  • can infect humans when they eat meat or other
    products of infected cattle

25
Gene Therapy
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • caused by an inherited defect in a gene
  • a fatal disorder in which a thick sticky mucus
    clogs passages in many of the bodys organs
  • Gene Therapy
  • the replacement of a defective gene with a normal
    version

26
Section 3
  • The Scientific Processes

27
The Scientific Processes
  • Observation
  • Stages of Scientific Investigation
  • Scientific Explanations

28
Solving Scientific Puzzles
  • Observation
  • The basis of scientific research
  • the act of noting or perceiving objects or events
    using the senses
  • is the first step in a scientific investigation
    a.k.a. scientific method

29
Stages of Scientific Investigation
  • There are generally six steps/stages in a
    scientific investigation
  • collecting observations
  • asking questions
  • forming hypotheses
  • making predictions (with controlled experiments)
  • drawing conclusions
  • Repeat

30
Collecting Observations
  • The key to a scientific investigation is careful
    observation

31
Asking Questions
  • Questions arise from observations

32
Forming Hypotheses and Making Predictions
  • Hypothesis
  • an explanation that might be true
  • must be testable through observations or
    experimentation
  • Prediction
  • the expected outcome of a test, assuming the
    hypothesis is correct

33
Confirming Predictions
  • pH
  • a relative measure of the hydrogen ion (H)
    concentration within a solution
  • Experiment
  • a planned procedure to test a hypothesis
  • Controlled Experiment
  • an experiment in which an experimental group is
    compared with a control group

34
  • Experimental Group
  • group that receives some type of experimental
    treatment
  • Control Group
  • group in an experiment that receives no
    experimental treatment
  • The control and experimental groups are designed
    to be identical except for on factor or variable

35
  • Independent variable
  • the factor that is changed in an experiment
  • Dependent variable
  • the variable that is measured in an experiment

36
Drawing Conclusions
  • Does the result of the experiment support the
    hypothesis?

37
Viewing Conclusions in Context
38
Repetition and Further Evidence Gathered
39
Scientific Explanations
  • Model
  • a representation of an object or system
  • often used to mean a hypothetical description
  • Theory
  • a set of related hypotheses that have been tested
    and confirmed many times by many scientists
  • unites and explains a broad range of observations

40
Constructing a Theory
  • Constructing a theory often involves considering
    contrasting and conflicting hypotheses
  • Scientists evaluate each others work
  • Scientific research must be able to be replicated
    reproduced by other scientists

41
  • There is no absolute certainty in a scientific
    theory the possibility always remains that
    future evidence will cause a scientific theory to
    be revised or rejected
  • See Flow Chart

42
Chapter 2
  • Chemistry of Life

43
Looking Ahead
  • Section 1 Nature of Matter
  • Section 2 Water and Solutions
  • Section 3 Chemistry of Cells
  • Section 4 Energy and Chemical Reactions

44
Section 1
  • Nature of Matter

45
Atoms
  • Atoms
  • all matter consists of atoms
  • are the smallest unit of matter that cannot be
    broken down by chemical means
  • consists of two parts the nucleus and the
    electrons
  • In a neutral atom (no electrical charge) there is
    one electron for every proton

46
  • Nucleus
  • located at the center of the atoms
  • is made up of positive protons and neutral atoms
  • has an overall positive electrical charge
  • Electrons
  • located outside of the nucleus
  • have a negative electrical charge

47
Elements
  • Elements
  • a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
  • are identified by the number of protons they have
  • Isotopes
  • atoms of an element that contain different
    numbers of neutrons

48
Chemical Bonding
  • Chemical Bond
  • force that holds two atoms together
  • Compound
  • a substance made of the joined atoms of two or
    more different elements
  • Chemical Formula
  • represents a compound
  • identifies the elements in the compound and its
    proportions

49
Covalent Bonds
  • Covalent Bond -
  • Bond that forms when electrons are shared
  • Molecule
  • Is a group of atoms held together by covalent
    bonds

50
  • The arrangement of their electrons determines how
    atoms bond together
  • Electrons are grouped into levels
  • The further the level is from the nucleus of an
    atom the more energy the electrons contain
  • Each level can only hold a limited amount of
    electrons

51
  • An atom is stable when its outer energy level is
    full
  • In order to fill an outer energy level, and
    become more stable, atoms react with other atoms
    to form molecules and compounds

52
Hydrogen Bonds
  • Polar Molecules
  • occur when there is an unequal distribution of
    negative electrical charge
  • Hydrogen Bond
  • a weak chemical attraction between polar
    molecules

53
Ionic Bonds
  • Ions
  • form when an atom has gained or lost electrons
  • produces an unequal number of electrons and
    protons
  • gains a positive or negative electrical charge

54
  • Positive Ions
  • Forms when an atoms loses electrons
  • Negative Ions
  • Forms when an atom gains electrons
  • Ionic Bond
  • A bond that forms between two oppositely charged
    ions
  • Bond formation only involves the outer most
    electrons of an atom

55
Section 2
  • Water and Solutions

56
Water in Living Things
  • Water has many properties that make it important
    to life
  • Water absorbs heat slowly and will retain it
    longer than many other substances
  • Many organisms release excess heat through water
    evaporation
  • Water helps cells maintain homeostasis

57
  • Cohesion
  • An attraction between substances of the same kind
  • Hydrogen bond
  • Occurs between water molecules
  • Causes surface tension
  • Surface tension
  • Prevents the surface of water from stretching or
    breaking easily
  • Adhesion
  • An attraction between different substances

58
Aqueous Solutions
  • Capillary action
  • Water molecules move upward through a narrow tube
  • The attraction of water to the walls of the tube
    suck the water up more strongly than gravity
    pulls it down
  • Solution-
  • Is a mixture in which one or more substances are
    evenly distributed in another substance

59
  • Polarity
  • The polarity of water enables many substances to
    dissolve in water
  • Ionic compounds and polar molecules dissolve best
    in water
  • Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve well in water
  • Like dissolves Like

60
  • Acids and Bases
  • Hydrogen Ion (H)
  • Hydroxide Ion (OH-)
  • Acids
  • Compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved
    in water
  • Bases
  • Compounds that reduce the concentration of
    hydrogen ions in a solution
  • Many form hydroxide ions
  • pH scale-
  • Based on the concentration of hydrogen ions

61
Section 3
  • Chemistry of Life

62
Carbon Compounds
  • Organic Compounds
  • Compounds that contain carbon
  • Four classes of Organic Compounds
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

63
  • Carbohydrates
  • Organic compound made of C, H, O in the
    proportion 121
  • Source of energy
  • Found in most foods
  • Are made from monosaccharides
  • Monosaccharides
  • Simple sugar which make up carbohydrates

64
  • Monosaccharide one simple sugar
  • Disaccharide two simple sugars joined together
  • Polysaccharide three or more simple sugars
    joined together
  • Macromolecule
  • A large molecule made up of smaller molecules
  • Stores energy

65
  • Lipids
  • Nonpolar molecule
  • Do not dissolve or dissolve poorly in water
  • Includes fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes
  • Play an important role in the cell membrane
  • Fats
  • Store energy
  • Glycerol
  • A three carbon molecule

66
  • Fatty acid
  • Long chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms
    bonded to them
  • Saturated Fats
  • Each carbon is bonded to two or three hydrogen
    atoms
  • Straight molecule
  • Solid at room temperature

67
  • Unsaturated Fats
  • Each carbon is bonded to one, two, or three
    hydrogen atoms
  • Not a straight molecule
  • Usually liquid at room temperature
  • Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils
  • Unsaturated fatty acids that are made into
    saturated fats by adding hydrogen atoms
  • Usually solid at room temperature

68
  • Proteins
  • Large molecule made up of amino acids
  • Amino acids
  • Small molecules that make up proteins
  • Twenty different ones
  • Proteins can be very different from each other
    and serve many different purposes

69
  • Nucleic acids
  • Large molecule made of nucleotides
  • Nucleotides
  • Small molecules that make up nucleic acids
  • Have 3 parts sugar, base, and a phosphate group
  • Two types DNA and RNA each with four kinds of
    nucleotides

70
DNA vs RNA
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Sugar deoxyribose
  • Structure double helix
  • Nucleotides cytosine, thymine, adenine, and
    guanine
  • Stores hereditary information
  • Ribonucleic acid
  • Sugar ribose
  • Structure single strand
  • Nucleotides cytosine, uracil, adenine, and
    guanine
  • Helps produce proteins and acts as an enzyme

71
  • ATP
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • A single nucleotide with two extra energy-storing
    phosphate groups
  • Used to temporarily store energy released during
    the breakdown of food
  • The energy will be used in chemical reactions

72
Section 4
  • Energy and Chemical Reactions

73
Introduction
  • Energy
  • Is the ability to move or change matter
  • Exists in many forms
  • Can be converted from one form to another
  • Can be transferred from one object to another
  • Can be stored or released by chemical reactions

74
  • Chemical Reaction
  • A process during which chemical bonds between
    atoms are broken and new ones are formed,
    producing one or more different substances
  • Reactants
  • The starting materials for a chemical reaction

75
  • Products
  • Substances formed during a chemical reaction
  • Reactant ? Products
  • Arrow (?) means forms, produces, yields

76
Energy in Chemical Reactants
  • During chemical reactions energy is either
    absorbed or released
  • Metabolism
  • The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur
    within an organism
  • Activation Energy
  • The energy needed to start a chemical reaction
  • Required during all chemical reactions

77
Enzymes
  • Enzymes
  • Substances that increase the speed of chemical
    reactions
  • Help organisms maintain homeostasis
  • Most are proteins
  • Are catalysts
  • Catalysts
  • Substances that reduce the amount of activation
    energy needed for a chemical reaction

78
Enzyme Specificity
  • Enzymes work with only certain substrates, lock
    key
  • Substrate
  • A substance on which an enzyme acts during a
    chemical reaction
  • Active sites
  • The deep fold on the surface of the enzyme
  • Site where the substrate fits

79
Factors in Enzyme Activity
  • Certain factors can affect an enzymes activity
    (effectiveness) such as temperature and pH
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