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Title: Functional Behavior Assessment and Effective-Practice Management Strategies for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders


1
Functional Behavior Assessment and
Effective-Practice Management Strategies for
Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Richard L. Simpson
  • University of Kansas
  • Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
    Webinar
  • February 8, 2010

2
Positive Behavioral Supports A Foundation for
Effective Management
  • Positive Behavioral Support Considerations
  • Ecological considerations are a primary means of
    understanding problem behavior
  • Systems-level and environmental modification
    strategies are primary means of changing problem
    behaviors
  • Understanding problem behaviors are more
    important than merely extinguishing them

3
Positive Behavioral Supports
  • Positive Behavioral Support Considerations
    (continued)
  • Positive methods are the primary tools for
    managing behavior
  • Positive behavioral supports are developed and
    implemented by teams of professionals,
    parents/families and students
  • Positive behavioral interventions are proactive
    rather than merely reactive

4
Positive Behavioral Supports
  • Positive Behavioral Support Considerations
    (continued)
  • Person-centered values and sensitivity/appreciatio
    n of individuals preferred life style and
    personal values are major considerations when
    making decisions relative to positive behavioral
    supports
  • Positive behavioral supports interventions are
    designed to facilitate persons access to
    desirable personal relationships and environments.

5
Positive Behavioral Support Levels of Intervention
  • Universal Group Behavior Support
  • Designed for all or most students
  • Universal group behavior support
  • Specialized Group Behavior Support
  • Designed for students who present critical risk
    factors
  • Specialized Individual Behavior Support
  • Designed for students who require intensive and
    individualized support

6
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7
Key Elements Connected to PBS Supports
  • Collaborative team-based decision-making
  • Person-centered decision-making
  • Self-determination
  • Functional assessment of behavior
  • Identification of outcomes that enhance quality
    of life and are valued by individuals, families
    and the community

8
Key Elements Connected to PBS Supports (continued)
  • Strategies that are acceptable in inclusive
    community settings
  • Strategies that teach useful and valued skills
  • Strategies that are evidence-based and socially
    and empirically valid
  • Strategies that do not cause pain or humiliation
    or deprive the individual of basic needs

9
Key Elements Connected to PBS Supports (continued)
  • Constructive and respectful strategies that
    emphasize antecedent interventions, instruction
    in prosocial behaviors, and environmental
    modifications
  • Ongoing measurement of effectiveness and impact
  • Source Board of the Association for Positive
    Behavior Supports (2007)

10
Understanding Behavior
Positive Behavior Supports
Medical and Biological Interventions
Behaviorally-Based Methods
Social Skill/Social Interaction
Academic Supports and Interventions
Environmental and Organizational Supports
Other (e.g., visual imagery, Counseling)
Cognitive-Based Techniques
11
Foundational Effective Practice Management Steps
1. Identify and define a behavior so that you and
others clearly know what it is and take enough
data to adequately understand the target
response. 2. Understand the antecedents
associated with the behavior, i.e., time,
setting, personnel, curriculum/activity, and so
forth. 3. Understand the motivational factors
connected to the target behavior, i.e., the
results of the response (e.g., attention,
escape) 4. Formulate and test antecedent and
consequence hypotheses related to the target
behavior. 5. Based on the above, develop an
individualized intervention program.
12
Functional Behavior Assessment Vs. Analysis
  • Functional Behavior Assessment refers to a
    process of attempting to understand the purpose,
    motivation, and correlates of a problem behavior.
    The results of the process are informed
    hypotheses regarding the relationship between
    environmental events and other variables and the
    occurrence of the problem response and the
    development of an appropriate behavior support
    management plan.
  • Functional Behavior Analysis refers to the
    process of evaluating problem behaviors via use
    of systematic observations systematic
    manipulation of contextual variables to test
    hypotheses and other systematic analyses of the
    typography, antecedents, consequences and
    perceived functions of response. Findings are
    used to develop scientifically valid behavior
    support and management plans.

13
Key Assumptions Related to Use of Functional
Behavioral Assessment and Functional Analysis
Problem behaviors are Contextually
Based Behaviors occur in response to stimuli
(e.g., curricula, peer interactions and
situations), environments (e.g., class setting),
and internal factors (e.g., hunger, emotional
distress) Behaviors are controlled by antecedents
(e.g., teacher requests) and consequences (e.g.,
teacher or peer reactions to response
14
Key Assumptions Cont.
Problem Behaviors Serve a Function Problem
behaviors serve a purpose, even if a student is
unable to articulate what it is, and even if it
has been unsuccessfully used The form and
function of a problem behavior may be unrelated
15
Foundational Effective Practice Management Step 1a
  • Identify and Operationally Define a Socially
    Valid Target Response
  • Who
  • What (a brief description of the target response)
  • When (a brief reference to temporal elements)
  • Where (a brief reference to setting)

16
Identify and Define a Socially Valid Target
Responses
  • Socially valid behaviors are those that are
    perceived to be relevant and significant and that
    if addressed have the potential to enhance
    students quality of life.

17
Foundational Effective Practice Management Step 1b
  • Evaluate and Measure a Target Response
  • 1. Anecdotal records
  • 2. Frequency/event counts
  • 3. Duration measurement
  • 4. Latency assessment
  • 5. Interval recording
  • 6. Time sampling

18
Foundational Effective Practice Management Step
2 Functional Analysis Steps--Antecedent Analysis
  • Recognize the complexity of setting and other
    antecedent variables
  • Focus on the most relevant antecedent factors
  • Time
  • Personnel
  • Setting
  • Curriculum
  • Instructional Activity

19

20
Events and Variables Associated with Target
Behaviors
1. Time of Day --When are target behaviors most
likely to occur? --When are target behaviors
least likely to occur?
21
Events and Variables Associated with Target
Behaviors
2. Setting --Where are target behaviors most
likely to occur? --Where are target behaviors
least likely to occur?
Playground
Lunch Room
School Bus
22
Events and Variables Associated with Target
Behaviors
3. Personnel variables --With whom are the
behaviors most likely to occur? --With whom are
the behaviors least likely to occur?
23
Events and Variables Associated with Target
Behaviors
4. Curriculum/Activity Variable --What
curriculum/activity is most likely to produce the
target behavior? --What curriculum/activity is
least likely to produce the target behavior?
Math
Music
Group Work
Language Arts
Kick Ball
24
Other Antecedent Variables
Biological - Puberty - Seizure Activity -
Illness - Sleep Cycles - Biological/
Neurological-Based Behaviors (e.g., OCD) -
Sensory-Based Behaviors (e.g., sensitivity to
Light, sound) Environmental - Changes in
Environment and Schedule Changes - Sibling and
Parental Issues and Crises School -
Instructional Curricular Factors - Level of
Reinforcement/Support - Noise Level -
Activity Level - Classroom and Activity
Structure -Peers -Personnel changes
25
Foundational Effective Practice Management Step
3 Functional Analysis Steps--Motivational
Analysis
  • Collect and analyze FBA motivational-linked data
    and information
  • Identify Possible Functions of the Target Response

26
Evaluation of Possible Motivational Factors
  • Recognize the complexity and dynamic nature of
    motivational variables
  • Recognize that motivational variables will likely
    never be fully understood
  • Recognize that motivational variables are at best
    educated guesses that may translate into testable
    hypotheses

27
Possible Functions of Problem Behaviors
  • Communication
  • Sensory Related
  • Self-Gratification
  • Escape/Avoidance
  • Attention
  • Control/Power
  • Attempt to Obtain a Desired Object
  • Failure to Understand
  • Justice/Revenge
  • Other
  • Permutations and Combinations of the above

28
Management Step 4 Formulate and Test
Antecedent and Motivational Hypotheses
  • Identify Possible Functions of the Target
    Response and Formulate Hypotheses Regarding the
    Functions of the Behavior
  • Test Hypotheses Regarding the Functions of the
    Target Response

29
Central Themes of Measurement
  • Make the Measurement do-able and non-intrusive
  • Be a detective Start with the most obvious
    factors
  • Dont be afraid to trust your instincts when
    generating hypotheses
  • Test your hypotheses

30
Make the Measurement do-able and non-intrusive.
31
Be a detective Start with the obvious factors.
32
Dont be afraid to trust your instincts when
generating hypotheses.
33
Test your hypotheses.
34
Measurement Methods
  • Archival Methods
    --Record Review
  • Informant Methods
    --Interviews
    --Testing/Assessment
    Scales
  • Direct Observation
    --Scatter-plot Analysis
    --ABC/ABCR Analysis
  • Analogue Methods
    --Clinical Condition Analysis

35
Scatter Plot Analysis
  • Activity Time Days
  • M T W R F
  • SPED 830-955
  • Reading 10-1045
  • Spelling 1050-1130
  • Recess 1130-1145
  • Math 1150-12
  • Lunch 1205-1235
  • Math 1240-115
  • Language 120-200
  • SPED 205-250
  • Prepare for home

36
Scatterplot of Tims aggressive behavior Student
Tim Wabash Date Week of September 19-30 Target
Any occurrence in which contact is made between
Tims hand, fist or foot and another person
(student or adult) anytime at school. X Target
behavior O No Target
Behavior
37
A-B-C Chart Name ____________________ Date
___________________ Class ________________________
__
38
Informal Functional Analysis
B Behavior C Consequence R Response
39
Jasons Target Behavior Jason will defecate
either while, or shortly after, being asked to do
something.
40
Jasons A-B-C Behavior Chart
41
Management Step 5 Develop an individualized
intervention program
  • ASD Program Intervention Options
  • Interpersonal Relationship Strategies
  • Skill-Based Methods
  • Cognitive-Based Methods
  • Physiological/Biological/Neurological Treatments
  • Other Interventions and Treatments
  • Sources
  • National Research Council. (2001). Educating
    children with autism. Committee on Educational
    Interventions for Children with Autism.
    Washington, DC National Academy Press.
  • Heflin, J., Simpson, R.L (1998). Interventions
    for children and youth with autism Prudent
    choices in a world of exaggerated claims and
    empty promises. Part 11 Legal/policy analysis
    and recommendations for selecting Interventions
    and treatments. Focus on Autism and Other
    Developmental Disabilities,13(4), 194-211.
  • Heflin, J., Simpson, R.L (1998). Interventions
    for children and youth with autism Prudent
    choices in a world of exaggerated claims and
    empty promises. Part 1 Intervention and
    treatment option review. Focus on Autism and
    Other Developmental Disabilities, 13(4), 212-220.
  • Simpson, R., de Boer-Ott, S., Griswold, D.,
    Myles, B., Byrd, S., Ganz, J.,et al. (2005).
    Autism spectrum disorders Interventions and
    treatments for children and youth. Thousand Oaks,
    CA Corwin Press.
  • Simpson, R.L. (2005). Evidence-based practices
    and students with autism spectrum disorders.
    Focus on Autism and Other Developmental
    Disabilities, 20(3), 140-149.

42
Intervention Options Reinforcement
  • Reinforcement Methods
  • Tangibles/Edibles
  • Contingent Activities
  • Social Reinforcement
  • Token Reinforcement
  • Contingency Contracting

43
Successful Token Economy Programs
  • Tokens should be tangible, i.e., something
    students can see, touch, etc.
  • Tokens should be manageable, i.e., not to small
    as to be easily lost not so large as to be
    difficult to handle and transport
  • Learners need to be able to exchange tokens for
    desired reinforcers
  • Learners should not be able to obtain tokens from
    sources other than their teachers

44
Successful Token Economy Programs
  • Token economy systems should allow for a variety
    of rewards and the rewards/reinforcers should be
    periodically changed
  • Learners may need to be taught how to exchange
    tokens for reinforcers
  • Learners should have regularly scheduled
    opportunities to exchange their tokens for
    reinforcers
  • Teachers should plan for ways to counter token
    loss, theft and counterfeiting

45
Contingency Contracting
  • Contingency contracting involves a written
    behavioral contract between a learner and teacher
    (or other adult) regarding the performance of
    specified behaviors and consequences. Contingency
    contracts can either be for individual students
    or groups of students.

46
Intervention Options Extinction
  • Extinction
  • Ignoring attention-motivated behaviors

47
Behavior Reduction Interventions
  • Behavior Reduction Methods
  • Response Cost
  • Time Out
  • Overcorrection
  • Differential Reinforcement

48
Behavior Reduction Time Out
  • Time out forms
  • Ignoring
  • Contingent observation
  • Removal of materials
  • Reduction of response maintenance stimuli
  • Exclusion
  • Seclusion

49
Differential Reinforcement Methods
  • Differential reinforcement forms
  • Differential reinforcement of other behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of incompatible
    behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of alternative
    behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of lower rates of
    behavior

50
Behavior Reduction The Case Against Their Use
  • Ethically and morally unjustified
  • Only can suppress undesired behavior
  • Potential for misuse and abuse is too great
  • Positive alternatives exist
  • Behavior reduction methods disregard the
    communicative function of undesired responses

51
Behavior Reduction The Case in Favor of Their Use
  • Unsatisfactory alternatives to behavior reduction
    strategies exist
  • Behavior reduction options increase students
    access to normalized settings
  • Behavior reduction strategies are valid and
    utilitarian when used appropriately
  • Failure to apply all available and appropriate
    interventions increases parent/family frustration
    and potentially deprive students of appropriate
    educational and treatment opportunities

52
Environmental and Organizational Supports
  • Clearly stated rules and expectations
  • Consistent schedules, routines and predictability
  • Physical organization supports
  • Clear behavior and task requirements
  • Systematic performance monitoring
  • Structured teaching
  • Specialty individualized programs, as needed
  • Visual structuring of events and expectations
  • Home-base programs
  • Safe harbor programs
  • Classroom transition Supports
  • Competent buddy pairing
  • Protection from teasing/bullying

53
Visual Supports and Schedules
  • Assists students organize and predict daily
    events
  • Assists students in knowing what will happen next
  • Assists students transition from one activity to
    the next
  • Visual support forms
  • Pictures/icons of scheduled activities
  • Sequential pictures of scheduled activities
  • Transportable schedules students carry from
    setting to setting

54
Other Visual Support Options
  • Task Organizers
  • Turn Taking Cards
  • Waiting Symbols
  • Choice Making
  • Rules and Alternate Behaviors
  • Consequence Maps
  • Calming Supports
  • Transition Supports
  • Activity Completion Signals
  • Introducing Change
  • First, Then Cards
  • Video modeling

55
Cognitive Support Strategies
Cognitive support strategies include a variety of
interventions designed to promote increased
independent behavior through methods such as
self-monitoring, self-regulation and
self-verbalization.
56
Assumptions Underlying Cognitive Support
Strategies
  • Behavior is affected by cognitive activity, thus
    by influencing cognitive change desired
    behavioral changes may occur.
  • Individuals have both the capacity and preference
    for monitoring and managing their own behavior.
  • Individuals can be instructed to monitor their
    own behavior and achievement and to appropriately
    and effectively use self-reinforcement, thereby
    shifting the locus of behavior control from a
    more externally-oriented source to within the
    individual.

57
Cognitive Support Strategy Steps
  • Pre-training preparation
  • Discrimination training
  • Self-management implementation
  • Self-management independence training
  • Generalization training

58
Cognitive Support Strategy Steps
Pre-training preparation
  • Target the problem area or need
  • Engage the student in discussing the problem area
    or need
  • Prepare materials
  • Timing device
  • Data collection form
  • Self-management tools

59
Cognitive Support Strategy Steps
Discrimination training
  • Student is assisted in becoming aware of the
    problem area or need and how it impacts his/her
    behavior and the perceptions of others
  • Instructor introduces the cognitive support
    strategy and explains how the method can be
    helpful to the student

60
Cognitive Support Strategy Steps
Self-management implementation
  • Instructor teaches the student to
  • Self-monitor
  • Self-record
  • Self-reward
  • Instructor teaches the student to attempt
    self-monitoring, including self-assessment,
    prompting statements and self-feedback
  • Instructor teaches the student to self-record
  • Instructor teaches the student to self-reward or
    self-reinforce

61
Cognitive Support Strategy Steps
Independence Training
  • Student practices the strategy under teacher
    direction, beginning with instructor prompts,
    student overt speech, student covert speech
    fading, and so forth

62
Cognitive Support Strategy Steps
Generalization Training
  • Student self monitors the target behavior across
    different areas, activities, and settings

63
Other Cognitive-Based Options
  • Cognitive-Based Methods
  • Contracts
  • Social stories
  • Power cards
  • Cartooning
  • Cognitive scripts

64
Social Stories
  • Social Story Components
  • Descriptive sentences
  • Perspective sentences that describe the feelings
    and reactions of others
  • Directive sentences are statements about
    appropriate behavioral responses
  • Affirmative sentences (a shared value within a
    given culture)
  • http//www.thegraycenter.org/Social_Stories.htm

65
Power Cards
  • The Power Card strategy connects an appropriate
    or desired behavior or social skill to an
    individuals area of special interest.
  • Power Cards involve scenarios wherein a childs
    special interest, a hero, or a model connected to
    a special interest models a solution to a problem
    similar to the one experienced by the child.

66
Video Modeling and Prompting
  • Video Modeling
  • Learner shown videotape of a model performing a
    target behavior or completing a desired task
  • After watching videotape, learner provided
    opportunity to perform the target behavior or
    complete the desired task
  • Video Prompting
  • Learner shown a series of video clips in sequence
  • After watching the first video clip the learner
    is provided opportunity to perform the first step
    of the task
  • The learner is subsequently shown the next video
    clip in sequence and so forth until all of the
    target behaviors have been shown

67
Video Modeling/Prompting Steps
  • Select target behaviors
  • Get the right equipment (i.e., camera, videotape
    play, monitor)
  • Write a script and/or develop a task analysis
  • Obtain baseline data
  • Make instructional video
  • Arrange teaching environment
  • Instructional time
  • Instructional place
  • Appropriate instructional materials
  • Present video models and video prompts
  • Monitor progress
  • Troubleshoot
  • Fade video models and video prompts

68
The Incredible 5-Point Scale
A 5-point scale can be used to teach individuals
with ASD to recognize different levels of
anxiety, stress and responses that are
potentially problematic. The scale visually
breaks down a persons responses to stressful
situations by identifying the behaviors, feelings
and emotions associated with each level and what
steps can be taken to reduce the stress level
(Buron Curtis, 2003). Individuals with ASD are
taught to think in terms of being at a level 1,
2, 3, 4, or 5 using the scale as a visual prompt.
Strategies for responding to various levels are
also incorporated into the program.
69
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