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PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH

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PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND ... Processing difficulties (A) Characteristic features of a child with fetal ... Neonatal intensive care Risk: Blindness, deafness ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH


1
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH
2
Learning Objectives
  • How and when do various teratogens affect the
    developing fetus?
  • How can you summarize the effects of teratogens
    during the prenatal period?
  • How do maternal age, emotional state, and
    nutrition affect prenatal and neonatal
    development?
  • What about the fathers state - can this
    influence development?

3
Prenatal Environment
  • Reciprocal influence
  • Person and environment
  • Good and bad influences important
  • Teratogen Environmental agent
  • Harms the developing fetus
  • Critical Period Organogenesis
  • Dosage and duration
  • Genetic make-up Susceptibility

4
  • The critical periods of prenatal development.
    Teratogens are more likely to produce major
    structural abnormalities during the third through
    the eighth prenatal week. Note, however, that
    many organs and body parts remain sensitive to
    teratogenic agents throughout the nine-month
    prenatal period

5
Teratogens Drugs
  • Thalidomide (for morning sickness)
  • All or parts of limbs missing
  • Tobacco Miscarriage, low birth weight, SIDS,
    slows fetal growth
  • Alcohol FAS
  • Small, facial deformities, retardation
  • Cocaine Processing difficulties

6
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7
  • (A) Characteristic features of a child with fetal
    alcohol syndrome (FAS).

8
  • (B) Child with FAS, illustrating many features in
    the drawing. Such children may also have
    cardiovascular and limb defects.

9
Teratogens - Diseases
  • Rubella (German Measles)
  • Blind, deaf, heart, brain
  • Syphilis Miscarriage, blind, deaf, heart, brain
  • After 18th week
  • AIDS Mothers transmit to babies (15-35)
  • Prenatally, perinatally, postnatally

10
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11
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12
Teratogens Environmental Hazards
  • Radiation MR, leukemia, cancer, mutations,
    spontaneous abortions, etc.
  • Avoid X-rays when pregnant
  • Pollutants
  • In air and water
  • Lead MR (also postnatally)

13
The Mothers State
  • Age Typically age 16-35
  • 15 or younger dont seek prenatal care
  • Birth complications, low birth weight
  • Over 35Miscarriage, Down Syndrome (fathers age
    also)
  • Emotion Stress can stunt fetal growth
  • Positive outlook most helpful
  • Nutrition 25-35 lb weight gain
  • Malnutrition Smaller neurons, brain, child

14
The Fathers State
  • Research limited except for genetic contribution
  • Fathers age can also be influential
  • Over 35 Increased number miscarriages, heart
    defects, Down Syndrome
  • Over 50 Higher risk for schizophrenia
  • Exposure to environmental toxins
  • Radiation, anesthetic gases, pesticides
  • Damage to genetic material in sperm

15
Postnatal Depression
  • Baby Blues mild, common
  • Clinical depression 1/10
  • Previous depression common
  • Children of Depressed Mothers
  • Insecurely attached, less responsive
  • Negative to other children

16
The Fathers Experience
  • Accepted, expected in delivery rooms
  • Attend prenatal classes with wife
  • Experience described as a significant event
  • Anxiety, stress common during delivery
  • Relief, pride, joy when baby is born
  • Sometimes depression following birth
  • Disappointed if sex does not resume soon

17
The Neonatal Environment
  • Culture, early socialization, health status
  • E.g., low birth-weight babies (8 in US)
  • Less than 5½ lbs
  • Strongly linked to low SES
  • Environment Neonatal intensive care
  • Risk Blindness, deafness, CP, autism, cognitive,
    and later academic problems
  • Parenting must be attentive, responsive

18
  • Modern technology permits survival of younger and
    smaller babies, but many experts believe we have
    reached the lowest limits of viability at 23-24
    weeks gestation.

19
Learning Objectives
  • What are the advantages of breast feeding?
  • Are there disadvantages of breast feeding?
  • How can at-risk newborns be identified?
  • What treatments are available to optimize
    development of at-risk babies?
  • To what extent are the effects of the prenatal
    and perinatal environments long lasting?
  • What factors influence whether effects are
    lasting?

20
Breast or Bottle?
  • Breast feeding most natural nutrition
  • Practices vary across cultures
  • Health benefits great for breast-fed infants
  • At least first 6 months recommended
  • More likely to bottle feed Factors
  • Younger, low SES, less education, employed,
    African American
  • US values toward breast feeding ambivalent

21
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22
Low Birth-Weight Babies
  • lt 5½ pounds Small for date or preterm
  • Leading cause of infant mortality
  • 8 of all births, 65 of all infant deaths
  • Factors Low SES, smoking, stress, multiples
  • Worse for minority, poverty, single-parent
    children
  • For most, significant catch-up growth
  • Low Birth-Weight Infants
  • Greater risk for blindness, deafness, CP, autism,
    health problems - especially respiratory problems

23
Factors Helpful for LBW Infants
  • Breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, massage
  • Responsive parenting, intellectual stimulation
  • Early intervention programs work with parents
  • Childcare education and support
  • Growth-enhancing home environment
  • Consistently attentive, responsive parenting

24
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25
Risk and Resilience
  • Not all high-risk infants have problems
  • Werner Kauai Longitudinal study (40 yrs)
  • Findings
  • Effects decrease over time
  • Outcomes depend on postnatal environment
  • Protective factors
  • Personal resources
  • Supportive postnatal environment
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