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CSC 830 Computer Graphics Lecture 5 Shading

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CSC 830 Computer Graphics Lecture 5 Shading Course Note Credit: Some of s are extracted from the course notes of prof. Mathieu Desburn (USC) and prof. Han-Wei ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CSC 830 Computer Graphics Lecture 5 Shading


1
CSC 830 Computer GraphicsLecture 5Shading
Course Note Credit Some of slides are extracted
from the course notes of prof. Mathieu Desburn
(USC) and prof. Han-Wei Shen (Ohio State
University).
2
Shading
Determining the light traveling from a point in
the scene to the viewers eye
Images courtesy of Watt, Watt Watt, and Foley
van Dam
3
Shading
Light comes from many sources
reflection
scattering
absorption
transmission
emission
4
Local versus Global Illumination
  • Global Illumination
  • Considers indirect illumination
  • Reflection
  • Refraction
  • Shadows
  • Local Illumination
  • Only considers direct illumination
  • No reflection
  • No refraction
  • Shadows possible

5
Local versus Global Illumination
Direct Illumination
Indirect Illumination
We will do local only for this lecture
6
Local illumination
  • Only consider the light, the observer position,
    and the object material properties

7
Local versus Global Illumination
Images courtesy of Francois Sillion
To understand shading properly, we need to
review some basic notions of physics
8
Basic Illumination Model
  • Simple and fast method for calculating surface
    intensity at a given point
  • Lighting calculation are based on
  • The background lighting conditions
  • The light source specification color, position
  • Optical properties of surfaces
  • Glossy OR matte
  • Opaque OR transparent (control refection and
    absorption)

9
Radiance
Radiance Power per unit projected area
perpendicular to the ray, per unit solid
angle in the direction of the ray
Think of it as a flux of photons leaving the
surface
10
Irradiance
Irradiance Radiant energy per unit area
Think of it as a flux of photons bombarding the
surface
11
BRDF
Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function
Determines the fraction of light from an incoming
direction reflected to an outgoing direction
Relates reflected radiance to incoming
irradiance
Image courtesy of Watt, 3D Computer Graphics
12
Properties of the BRDF
Reciprocity
In photography and holography, reciprocity refers
to the relationship between the intensity of the
light and duration of the exposure that result
in identical exposure. Within the normal range
for intensity and time for the film, the
reciprocity law states that exposure intensity
time. Outside the normal range the reciprocity
law breaks down, which is known as reciprocity
failure.
13
Properties of the BRDF
Anisotropy
Anisotropy (the opposite of isotropy) is the
property of being directionally dependent. In
the field of computer graphics, an anisotropic
surface will change in appearance as it is
rotated about its geometric normal, as is the
case with velvet. Anisotropic scaling occurs
when something is scaled by different amounts in
different directions.
14
Reflectance Equation
BRDF allows us to calculate outgoing light, given
incoming light
Image courtesy of Watt, 3D Computer Graphics
15
Splitting the BRDF
In practice, BRDF can be really funkyTo
simplify, we divide the BRDF into 3 components
16
Reflectance
  • 3 forms

Slide Courtesy of Dutre et. al on SIGGRAPH 2001
17
Ideal Specular Reflection
Reflection is only in the mirror direction
18
Ideal Diffuse Reflection
Reflection is equal in all directions
19
Directional Diffuse Reflection
Reflection is concentrated around the mirror
direction
20
Ambient Light
If a surface is visible from the eye, but not a
light, it will be rendered black (if indirect
light is not considered).
  • Ambient light is an approximation to indirect
    light
  • Difficult to compute
  • Approximate this as a constant
  • Or a light source at the eye

21
Phong Reflection
Assume point lights and direct illumination only
22
Diffuse Light
  • The illumination that a surface receives from a
    light source and reflects equally in all
    directions
  • This type of reflection is called Lambertian
    Reflection (thus, Lambertian surfaces)
  • The brightness of the surface is indepenent of
    the observer position (since the light is
    reflected in all direction equally)

23
Lamberts Law
  • How much light the surface receives from a light
    source depends on the angle between its angle and
    the vector from the surface point to the light
    (light vector)
  • Lamberts law the radiant energy Id from a
    small surface da for a given light source is
  • Id IL cos(q)
  • IL the intensity of the light source
  • is the angle between the surface
  • normal (N) and light vector (L)

24
Phong Diffuse Component
Diffuse component depends only on incident angle.
Note L and N are unit
Image courtesy of Watt, 3D Computer Graphics
25
Examples
Sphere diffusely lighted from various angles !
26
Specular Light
  • These are the bright spots on objects (such as
    polished metal, apple ...)
  • Light reflected from the surface unequally to all
    directions.
  • The result of near total reflection of the
    incident light in a concentrated region around
    the specular reflection angle

27
Specular Highlights
  • Shiny surfaces change appearance when viewpoint
    is changed
  • Specularities are caused by microscopically
    smooth surfaces.
  • A mirror is a perfect specular reflector

28
Phong Specular Component
Phong combines directional diffuse ideal
specular
Image courtesy of Watt, 3D Computer Graphics
29
Half Vector
  • An alternative way of computing phong lighting
    is Is ks Is (NH)n
  • H (halfway vector) halfway between V and L
    (VL)/2
  • Fuzzier highlight
  • Check http//www.lighthouse3d.com/opengl/glsl/inde
    x.php?ogldir2

N
H
L
V
30
Phong Illumination
Moving Light
Change n
31
Phong Ambient Component
Treat it as a constant
Where is the ambient light in the scene.
32
Adding Color
33
Adding Lights
34
Phong Reflection
Image courtesy of Watt, 3D Computer Graphics
35
Aluminium
36
Bronze
37
Chrome
38
Stainless Steel
39
OpenGL Materials
GLfloat white8 .8, .8, .8, 1., white2
.2,.2,.2,1.,black0.,0.,0. GLfloat
mat_shininess 50. / Phong
exponent / glMaterialfv( GL_FRON
T_AND_BACK, GL_AMBIENT,
black) glMaterialfv( GL_FRONT_AND_BACK,
GL_DIFFUSE, white8) glMaterialfv( GL_FRON
T_AND_BACK, GL_SPECULAR, white2)
glMaterialfv( GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_SHININESS,
mat_shininess)
40
OpenGL Lighting
GLfloat white 1., 1., 1., 1.
GLfloat light0_position 1., 1., 5., 0. /
directional light (w0) /
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION,
light0_position) glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,
GL_DIFFUSE, white) glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,
GL_SPECULAR, white) glEnable(GL_LIGHT0)
glEnable(GL_NORMALIZE) / normalize normal
vectors / glLightModeli(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SI
DE, GL_TRUE)/ two-sided lighting/
glEnable(GL_LIGHTING)
41
Vertex Normals vs. Face Normals
What are the normals to the surface?
Each polygonal face has a normal.
c
N (b - a) x (c - b)
a
b
We call these face normals.
42
Flat Shading
Assume a constant color across the polygon
c
a
b
Uses face normals
Equivalent to single point sampling
Polygon mesh is only an approximation. Can we do
better?
43
Vertex Normals vs. Face Normals
Should use the actual surfaces normals
Usually stored at the vertices of the object Can
calculate as averages of face normals
44
Mach Band ?
45
Mach Band ?
46
  • Shading Models for Polygons
  • Constant Shading (flat shading)
  • Compute illumination at any one point on the
    surface. Use face or one normal from a pair of
    edges. Good for far away light and viewer or if
    facets approximate surface well.
  • Per-Pixel Shading
  • Compute illumination at every point on the
    surface.
  • Interpolated Shading
  • Compute illumination at vertices and interpolate
    color

47
Interpolation
Given vertex normals, how to color the interior
  • Gouraud Interpolation
  • Phong Interpolation

48
Un-lit
49
Flat Shading
50
Gouraud Interpolation Interpolated Shading
51
Phong Interpolation Per pixel Shading
52
Gouraud Interpolation
Calculate the color at each vertex
C(c)
C(a)
C(b)
Interpolate the colors
C(c)
C t C(b) (1 t) C(c)
C(a)
C(b)
53
Gouraud Interpolation Problems
Misses some highlights
light
shading will be constant!
Shading is not linear
54
Phong Interpolation
Interpolate the normals, then compute the colors
light
Interpolation is usually done component-wise
55
  • Phong Shading Model
  • Gouraud shading does not properly handle
    specular highlights, specially when the n
    parameter is large (small highlight).
  • Reason colors are interpolated.
  • Solution (Phong Shading Model)
  • 1. Compute averaged normal at vertices.
  • 2. Interpolate normals along edges and
    scan-lines. (component by component)
  • 3. Compute per-pixel illumination.

56
(No Transcript)
57
Interpolation
Image courtesy of Watt Watt, Advanced Animation
and Rendering Techniques
58
Interpolated Shading - Problems
  • Problems at shared vertices shared by right
    polygons and not by one on left and hence
    discontinuity
  • Incorrect Vertex normals no variation in shade

59
Shade Trees
Phong Shade Tree




ka
ks
pow
Il
Ia
dot
n
kd
dot
Il
N
H
N
L
60
Shading Language
A language for implementing shading models
State is passed to/from the shader by global
variables Ci Outgoing ray color Oi Outgoing
ray opacity Cs Surface color Os Surface
opacity P Surface point N - Surface normal I
- Direction of viewing (eye ray) L -
Direction to the light source
N
I
L
61
Shading Language
Phong Surface Shader
surface plastic(float Ks .5, float Kd .5,
float Ka 1, float roughness .1, color
specularColor 1) point Nf
faceforward(N,I) Oi Os Ci
Os(Cs(Kaambient()Kddiffuse(Nf)
specularColorKsspecular(Nf,-I,roughness)
62
Light Sources
  • Point light source
  • Directional light source e.g. sun light
  • Spot light

63
Spot Light
  • To restrict a lights effects to a limited area
    of the scene
  • Flap confine the effects of the light to a
    designed range in x, y, and z world coordinate
  • Cone restrict the effects of the light using a
    cone with a generating angle d

64
Light Source Attenuation
  • Takes into account the distance of the light from
    the surface
  • IL I L fatt (d)
  • IL the received light after attenuation
  • I L the original light strength
  • fatt the attenuation factor
  • d the distance between the light source and
    the surface point
  • fatt max ( 1/(c1 c2d c3d2) , 1)
  • C1, C2, C3 are user defined constants associated
    with each light source

65
Hints for HW4
  • Shading can be done in easily in view space or in
    world space where all light, view, surface
    normal vectors are described in same coordinate
    space. how can you achieve this effect?
  • For normal transformation, use only 3x3 rotation
    matrix out of the 4x4 transformation inverse
    transpose of it remember normal transformation
    from the lecture 2?
  • For Phong shading, interpolate normal compute
    shading for each pixel. For Gouraud shading,
    compute shading at only vertex and interpolate
    the color.
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