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Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test and the State End of Course Test


Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test and the State End of Course Test United States History Part Two U.S History Since 1865 Review Material for GHSGT and SEOCT – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Passing the Georgia High School Graduation Test and the State End of Course Test

Passing the Georgia High School Graduation
Testand the State End of Course Test
  • United States HistoryPart Two
  • U.S History Since 1865

Review Material for GHSGT and SEOCT Prepared by
Michelle Drayton and Marjorie Seckinger ECHS
SSUSH10 The student will identify legal,
political, and social dimensions of
  • Reconstruction the act of bringing the South
    back into a political union with the North.
  • Problems resulted from power struggle between the
    executive and legislative branch over who would
    control the reconstruction process.

Presidential Reconstruction
  • After the assassination of President Lincoln,
    Andrew Johnson became president.
  • He also believed that the South had not seceded
    from the Union
  • Wanted to treat the South as in rebellion
  • Wanted to restore the Union as quickly and
    painlessly as possible

Congressional Reconstruction
  • Controlled by Radicals who wanted to punish the
    South for the war and
  • Called for strict readmission standards
  • Wanted to restructure the Souths political power
    away from the Planters

10 Plan Presidential Plan
  • 10 of the voting population must swear
    allegiance to the Union
  • Congress felt that this plan was too lenient and
    refused to admit representatives from the South
    into Congress

Radical Reconstruction
  • Divide the South into military districts with
    military commanders instead of elected officials
  • Must ratify 14th Amendment equal protection of
    all citizens gave citizenship to former slaves
  • Grant Black citizens the right to vote (15th
  • Former Confederate officials could not hold

Freedmans Bureau
  • Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting
    themselves to freedom.
  • Furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and
    helped them get jobs.
  • Able to attend school for the first time
  • African Americans started newspapers, served in
    public office, and attended new colleges and
    universities established for them.
  • Morehouse College -

  • Congress did not provide African Americans with
  • With few skills many returned to work on farms
    as sharecroppers and tenant farmers.
  • Reconstruction comes to an end in 1877 when the
    last state was re-admitted to the Union
  • African Americans were left with few protections
    against laws that discriminated against them
    (Jim Crow Laws)

13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
  • Known as the Civil War Amendments
  • 13th abolished slavery
  • 14th defined citizenship to include African
    Americans and guaranteed that no citizen can be
    deprived of rights without due process
  • 15th protected the right of African Americans
    to vote
  • These amendments were designed to protect the
    rights of African Americans however they were
    not effective in preventing discrimination and
    abuse of voting rights.

Black Codes and the KKK
  • Founded in 1866 the Ku Klux Klan used terrorism
    and violence to scare blacks and other
  • Tried to prevent Reconstruction governments from
    giving power to blacks.
  • Black Codes were restrictions on former slaves,
    passed by Southern governments Could not own
    weapons, meet together after sundown, etc.
  • Grandfather Clause poll taxes literacy tests
    were all ways in which blacks were denied the
    right to vote

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
  • President Johnson had been a supporter of
    Lincolns plan of reconstruction which would have
    re-admitted Southern states w/o restrictions
  • Congress attempted to weaken Johnsons power by
    passing several laws that made Reconstruction
    fall under their control
  • Congress wanted weaken his power even more
    brought impeachment charges against him even
    though the evidence was weak
  • Johnson escaped a conviction by one vote in the
    Senate but was weakened by the process -

SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of
big business and technological innovations after
  • After the end of Reconstruction people wanted
    to move west
  • Congress helped that movement by loaning millions
    of dollars to railroad companies to build
    railroads for the west coast
  • Railroads made it possible for the spread of
    population to the west coast

Transcontinental Railroad
  • Union Pacific - Began in Omaha and went west
  • Central Pacific Began in Sacramento and went
  • Railroads met in Utah to form the first
    trans-continental railroad.
  • Guilty of corruption in their business by
    overcharging the government
  • Use cheap Chinese labor conditions were
    hazardous low pay labor was exploited by the

  • Had impact on other industries
  • Farming surplus supplies of grain and animal
    products could shipped to market faster
  • Towns grew up around junctions of railroads
  • Steel industries grew to supply iron for the
    building of the railroads
  • Railroads organized their business around owning
    major supply of raw materials for building and
    running the railroads as well as owning the
    railroad company
  • Railroads were the first of the big business
    organizations led to growth of monopolies

Steel Industry
  • Andrew Carnegie made money in the steel industry
  • Used business tactics to drive the competition
    out of business
  • Introduced new process to make steel cheaper and
  • Leading industry in aiding the spread of the
    Industrial Revolution

John D. Rockefeller
  • Rockefeller, Carnegie, Vanderbilt were called
    Robber Barons because the got wealthy by
    exploitation and ruthlessness
  • Extreme wealth and lavish lifestyle
  • Held great economic and sometimes political power
    caused government to stay out of their business
  • Set prices where they liked, drove competition
    out of business
  • Part of the Gilded Age -

Monopolies and Trusts
  • Trusts are companies that combine for the purpose
    of reducing competition an controlling prices
  • Monopolies when one company or individual owns
    and controls all of an industry, a raw material,
    or a means of production

  • Thomas Edison one of the most important
    inventors in American history
  • Light bulb
  • Motion picture
  • Phonograph
  • Impact on American Life
  • - first lab set up for scientific
    experimentation, - created new industries led
    to improvements in living conditions and the
    expansion of factory jobs

SSUSH 12 The students
will analyze important consequences of American
industrial growth.
  • Ellis Island entry point for inspection of
    immigrants coming into the U.S.
  • The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.
    25 million new immigrants
  • Changed from Western and Northern Europe to
    Southern and Eastern Europe
  • Came to escape poverty persecution
  • -

New Immigration
  • Language barriers and cultural differences
    produced mistrust by Americans
  • Most settled in crowed conditions tenements for
    factory workers
  • Settled in urban areas - close to groups of
    other immigrants from the same country
  • Fear of new immigrants led to new call for
    restrictions on immigrants
  • Led to nativist movement favoring the interest
    of native born people over that of foreign born

American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers
  • Began in 1886 first successful labor union
  • Samuel Gompers organizer and first president
  • It is a combination of different unions into one
    large organization
  • Represented skilled workers (cigar makers)
  • Worked on collective bargaining to reach
    agreement on pay, hours, and conditions
  • Successful strikes helped raise the pay and
    improve the conditions of factory workers

Growth of Western Population Wounded Knee and
Sitting Bull
  • As white men moved west to settle the Native
    Americans were pushed into smaller and smaller
  • The destruction of the buffalo and constant
    battles with settlers forced them to abandon
    their traditional plains life

Growth of Western Population Wounded Knee and
Sitting Bull
  • Sitting Bull leader of Hunkpapa Sioux never
    signed an agreement to move his tribe to a
    reservation finally forced to surrender and
    live on a reservation
  • Wounded Knee 300 starving Sioux Indians were
    killed when a fight broke out between the Calvary
    and the Indians
  • Brought the Indian Wars to a bitter end

Pullman Strike
  • Strikes were often violent
  • Strike begins after the Pullman Company had
    drastically wages and refused to negotiate with
    the workers
  • Workers began to strike and sponsored a boycott
    of Pullman Trains
  • Pullman hired strikebreakers had the leaders of
    the strike jailed
  • Workers were fired and blacklisted so that they
    could not work in the railroad industry again.

SSUSH 13 The student will identify major efforts
to reform American society and politics in the
Progressive Era.
  • Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle
  • Exposed unsanitary conditions in the Chicagos
    meat processing plants
  • Muckrakers named because the raked up the
    muck of the business world
  • Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act
    during Teddy Roosevelts Administration

Social Reforms
  • Ida Tarbell muckraker wrote The History of
    Standard Oil Company -
  • Exposed the ruthless business practices of
    Standard Oil Company
  • Her writing along with others made public aware
    of abuses occurring in trusted services and

Women in Reform Movements
  • Jane Addams One of the most influential members
    of the settlement house movement 19th century
    reformer who responded to the call to help the
    urban poor
  • Part of the reform movement known as Social
  • Hull House settlement house established in
    Chicago, ILL. - educational, cultural, and
    social services
  • Instrumental in cultivating social responsibility

Need for Civil Rights Reforms
  • Jim Crow- created a racial caste system in the
    South- Prevented African Americans from voting
    and created segregated facilities
  • Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court
    decision that upheld that segregation (separation
    of the races) was lawful as long as separate
    facilities were and services equal commonly known
    as separate but equal principle

  • National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People
  • Organization founded in 1909 by W.E. B. DuBois
    to draw attention to the problem of
    discrimination and promote full racial equality
  • Founded by a number of African Americans and a
    number of prominent whites in New York.

Progressive Reforms
  • Reforms of Elections
  • Initiative was instrumental in giving citizens
    the power to create laws. (A bill originated by
    people rather than by lawmakers on the ballot)
  • Referendum a vote on the initiative allows
    voters to accept or reject the initiative.
  • Recall enables voters to remove public
    officials from elected positions by forcing them
    to face another election before the end of their
  • Direct Elections 17th Amendment the people
    would elect U.S. Senator instead of state

Labor Laws
  • In response in to poor working conditions
    workers organized into labor unions
  • Improved wages, work week, and child labor laws
  • Work place safety standards
  • Minimum age for work

SSUSH114 The student will explain Americans
evolving relationship with the world at the turn
of the century.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 law passed by
    Congress banning entry into the U.S. to all
    Chinese except students, teachers, merchants,
    tourists, and government officials for 10 years
  • Extended in 1902 repealed in 1943
  • Response to Nativism -

  • Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907-1908 Japans
    government agreed to limit immigration of
    unskilled workers to the U.S. In exchange for
    repeal of the San Francisco Segregation Order

Spanish American War
  • 1898 war between U.S. and Spain
  • Helped Cuba to win independence from Spain
  • Other causes include yellow journalism and the De
    Lome Letter
  • Direct Cause U.S. blamed Spain for the
    explosion that sand the U.S.S. Maine in the
    harbor of Havana, Cuba
  • War starts in Philippines colony of Spain and
    is also fought in the Caribbean Islands

Spanish American War
  • Results Spain freed Cuba and gave Islands of
    Guam and Puerto Rico to the U.S.
  • Sold Philippines to U.S. for 20 million
  • Treaty began great debate of Imperialism in the

U.S. in Latin America
  • Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the
    Monroe Doctrine
  • The U.S. claim the right to protect its economic
    economic interest by means of military
    intervention in the affair of Western Hemisphere
    nations (North and South America)

Panama Canal
  • Panama Canal built on the isthmus of Panama to
    provide a short cut between the Atlantic and
    Pacific Oceans 1914
  • Took over project for the French

SSUSh15 The Student will analyze the origins and
impact of U.S. involvement in World War I
  • World War I U.S. remained neutral at beginning
    of WWI in 1914
  • German provocation led to U.S. involvement in the
  • Supported Allied Forces by selling arms and war
    supplies to Britain and France
  • U.S. enters war in 1917 as a result of .
  • - Zimmerman Note note from Germany to Mexico
    proposing an alliance
  • Sinking of unarmed American merchant ships

War at Home - Impact
  • The Great Migration large scale movement of
    hundreds of thousands of African Americans from
    the rural South to factories in the North
  • Job opportunities and to escape the Jim Crow laws
    of the South

War at Home - Impact
  • Espionage and Sedition Act a person could be
    fined up to 10 thousand and sentenced up to 20
    years in jail for interfering with the war effort
    or saying any thing disloyal.
  • Targeted socialist and labor leader such as
    Eugene B. Debs - a known socialists and labor
    leader of the IWW given ten year prison
    sentence for speaking against the draft

Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • Wilsons ideas that he wanted included in the WWI
    peace treaty included freedom of the seas and
    League of Nations first peace keeping
  • U.S. never joined the League of Nations because
    Senate failed to approve treaty

  • 18th Amendment due to the womens temperance
    movement banned the sale, manufacture, and
    distribution of alcoholic beverages - known as
  • 19th Amendment Womens suffrage - gave women
    the right to vote in 1920 - result of womens
    efforts during WWI

SSUSH16 The student will identify key
developments in the aftermath of WWI
  • Red Scare and the rise of communism and socialism
  • The panic began in the U.S. in 1919 after the
    communist take over of Russia
  • Communist Party was formed in the U.S.
  • Bomb scare to public officials and business
  • Public became fearful of communist take over
  • Palmer (U.S. Attorney General) took action to
    combat RED SCARE

Immigrant restriction
  • As a result of the Red Scare the U.S. began a
    quota system
  • It established the maximum number of people who
    could enter the U.S. from Europe
  • Greatly limited immigrants from southern and
    eastern Europe
  • 1927 law reduced the total number to 150,000 in
    one year

Industrial expansion
  • Henry Ford is most noted for the introduction of
    assembly line which created the emergence of mass
  • Produced identical items in large quantities
  • Made car affordable
  • Model T was the most popular automobile

Harlem Renaissance
  • 1920s literary and artistic movement celebrating
    African American culture in Harlem, New York
  • Langston Hughes was the movements best known
  • Louis Armstrong famous jazz artist during this
    time known as one of the most important and
    influential musicians in the history of jazz
  • (played trumpet)

Modern forms of Culture
  • Tin Pan Alley (often shortened to TPA) is the
    name given to the collection of New York
    City-centered music publishers and songwriters
    who dominated the popular music of the United
    States in the late 19th century and early 20th
  • Irvin Berlin Composer
  • Mass Media Radio and movies changed the speed
    with which people gained information

SSUSH17 The student will analyze the causes and
consequences of the Great Depression
  • Causes
  • - Tariffs (to protect American goods) and war
    debts (WWI)
  • - Over production of farm goods
  • - Availability of easy credit
  • - unequal distribution of income
  • - Stock market speculation and crash

Effects of the Great Depression
  • People out of work
  • Rise of shanty towns (Hoovervilles)
  • World economy suffers
  • Bank failures
  • Schools close
  • Hoover begin active governmental involvement too
    little too late

Dust Bowl
  • Drought 1930s wreaked havoc on the Great
  • Farmers had exhausted the land due to over
    production of crops
  • Grasslands became unsuitable for farming
  • Windstorms picked up millions of tons of dust and
    carried to East coast cities
  • Dust Bowl consisted of Kansas, Oklahoma,
    Colorado, Texas and New Mexico
  • People were plagued by dust storms and evictions
    most migrated to California and Pacific coast

Great Depression
  • Great stress on American families
  • Men suffered from unemployment
  • No federal system of direct relief for the needy
  • Working women became targets of enormous
  • Children suffered
  • High suicide rates neglected medical care

SSUSH18 The student
will describe Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal as
a response to the depression and compare the ways
governmental programs aided those in need.
  • New Deal was a series of programs designed to
    give direct relief to the needy and to stimulate
    the economy
  • The first part of the New Deal was in the first
    100 days
  • The second part

The New Deal
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - federal
    corporation established in 1933 to construct dams
    and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region
  • Design to generate electricity as well as to
    prevent floods

The New Deal
  • Wagner Act AKA the National Labor Relations Act
  • To protect workers rights
  • Protected rights to join unions and to collective
  • Could not interfere with union organizing
  • Set max. hours at 44 per week
  • Set rules for under 16
  • Ban hazardous work for those under 18

The New Deal
  • Social Security Act most important achievement
    of New Deal
  • Old age insurance for retirees 65 or older and
    their spouses.
  • Un-employment compensation system
  • Aid to families with dependent children
  • Aid to disabled

Womens Activism
  • Eleanor Roosevelt (wife of FDR) instrumental
    in the Second New Deal
  • Encouraged husband to set up social programs and
    to appoint women to government positions
  • Traveled to bring attention to social conditions
    and the suffering of the nations people.

Challenges to Roosevelt
  • Huey Long (Senator of Louisiana) challenged New
    Deal policies proposed a share our wealth
    program promised something for everyone
  • Assassinated

Challenges to FDR
  • FDR tried to increase the number of Supreme Court
    justices from 9 to 15 because he wanted to stop
    the court from interfering with his New Deal
  • Not passed by Congress but many justices did
    retire or resign thus he was able to appoint
    justices that who agree with his policies

Challenges to FDR
  • WWII broke out in Europe
  • Neutrality Act a series of acts passed in
    1935-36 to prevent U.S. involvement in arm sales
    and loans to nations at war.

SSUSH 19 The student will identify the origins,
major developments, and the domestic impact of
WWII, especially, the growth of the federal
  • A. Philip Randolph president and founder of the
    Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porter and the
    nations most respected African American Union
  • Protested discrimination both in the military and
    in industry
  • March was cancelled when FDR promised to end
    discrimination in defense industry
  • (Prior to WWII 75 of defense contractors refused
    to hire African Americans) (15 hired them only
    as janitors)

U.S. entry into WWII
  • Pearl Harbor Dec.7, 1941 (Hawaii) largest
    U.S. naval base in the Pacific
  • Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor without warning
  • Hoped destroy the ability of the U.S. navy to
    protect areas of the South Pacific
  • President FDR called on Congress to declare war
    on Japan (also declared war on Germany 2 days

U.S. enters WWII
  • Japanese Internment (confinement in camps)
  • War Dept. called for the mass evacuation of all
    Japanese Americans to be placed in camps
  • Occurred in Hawaii, California, Washington,
    Oregon, and Arizona
  • Justified as a necessary for national security
  • Placed in remote relocation centers 2/3 were
    people who were born in this country.
  • No charges had been filed against them no
    evidence against them forced to sell homes and
    property for less than true value
  • German and Italian Americans also faced

U.S. enters WWII
  • Lend Lease Program - Prior to our entry into
  • Allowed the U.S. to ship arms and supplies to
    nations fighting the AXIS powers
  • Arsenal of Democracy
  • Allied Powers were Great Britain, France, USSR
    and U.S. (and many others
  • Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan

Major Battles WWII
  • Midway Major naval battle on strategic island
    in Pacific
  • Turning point in the Pacific War
  • Allied Victory ended the power of the Japanese

Major Battles
  • D-Day - June 6, 1944
  • Largest invasion force ever assembled
  • Allied invasion code name Operation Overlord
  • Allies invaded Europe and began a push to
    liberate France and the rest of Europe from
    German forces

Major Battles
  • May 1945 fighting across Europe pushed the
    German army back into Germany
  • Soviets came from the west into Germany
  • Rest of Allies came from the East to attack
  • Hitler commits suicide leads to VE DAY May 8th
  • Germany surrenders to Allies

Getting ready for war
  • Selective Service draft was expanded
  • Factories were converted from civil products to
    making war materials
  • War Production Board created to manage the
  • Great Depression ends as factories produce war
  • Women served in special units of the armed
    services and took the place of men in the work
  • By the end of the war - women made up 1/3 of the
    work force

The Atomic Bomb
  • Los Alamos The Manhattan Project was the code
  • FDR created the Office of Scientific Research
    and Development
  • Their most important achievement was the
    production of the Atomic Bomb
  • Decision to use the bomb was based on the belief
    that the bomb would save American lives over a
    land invasion of Japan
  • Forced the surrender of the Japanese Sept. 1945

Atomic Bomb
  • Some people believed that the use of the bomb was
    also necessary to show USSR that we would have
    the power to defend Europe from the spread of

Standards 20-25
  • The majority of the information in these
    standards are not tested on the GHSGT.
  • They may be included in the State End of Course

Cold War
  • Name given to the competition between the United
    States and the Soviet Union for influence in the
    world after WWII.
  • Soviet Union set up Communist governments in
    Eastern Europe

Cold War
  • Containment Policy belief that the best way to
    keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the
    Russians wherever they tried to spread their
  • Truman Doctrine stated that the U.S. would
    support any nation threatened by Communism

Cold War
  • Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State
    George Marshall (1947)
  • Proposed massive American economic aid to Europe
  • Hoped to rebuild them and prevent the spread of

Cold War
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization member
    nations agreed to fight for each other if
    attacked. (opposed Communism)
  • Warsaw Pact to oppose NATO Soviets formed a
    military alliance with nations of Eastern Europe

Cold War
  • Fall of China (Mao Zedong)
  • Mao led Communists in China during Civil War
    after WWII against Chiang Kai-Shek
  • The Communist won in 1949
  • Chiang Kai-Shek forced to flee and set up rival
    government in Taiwan

Korean War
  • After WWII Korea divided along the 38th
  • Northern part controlled by Soviet Union set up
    Communist government
  • Southern part controlled by U.S. set up a
    democratic government
  • 1950 North invaded the South in an attempt to
    take over

Korean War
  • The United Nations formed an international army
    led by the U.S. to stop the North
  • War ends in truce
  • Stopped spread of Communism to S. Korea
  • Communism continued to be a threat in Eastern
    Europe and Southeast Asia

Cold War and Communism
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy gained national
    attention by claiming that Communists had
    infiltrated the State Department
  • Created a red scare by his accusations of
    Communist activity in all levels of government
  • Later discredited when he could not prove his

Baby Boom
  • 1946 to 1960 huge population growth
  • Levittown was one of the first massive suburbs
    built for the baby boomers.
  • Interstate Highway Act - under Pres. Eisenhower
    built a system of highways across the U.S.

Baby Boom
  • Led to an economic boom as people began to demand
    new products
  • Televisions became very popular
  • First televised presidential debate was between
    Richard Nixon and John Kennedy
  • John Kennedy won a narrow victory because he did
    better in the debates on television

Arms Race to the Space Race
  • Competition between the United States and the
    Soviet Union led to the race to outer space
  • 1957 The Soviets launched Sputnik the first
    satellite in space
  • This sparked the growth of the American Space
  • Eisenhower encouraged more science and math in
    the schools systems

Arms Race
  • U.S. created larger and more deadly atomic and
    nuclear weapons.
  • The Soviet Union kept pace with U.S. production
    of weapons
  • Competition to build more bombs than the other

Cuban Revolution
  • 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows the government of
    Cuba and established a communist government with
    the help of the Soviets

Bay of Pigs
  • 1960 Kennedy becomes President
  • CIA get permission to carry out plan to help
    Cuban exiles (those who left Cuba) to overthrow
  • It was a failure Kennedy is embarrassed by the
  • Soviets believe that they are stronger than U.S.

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • U.S. spy plane spot missile bases being built in
  • Soviets are planning to deliver nuclear missiles
    to the base
  • U.S. threatens action unless Soviet ships turn
    around and the bases are destroyed.
  • U.S. uses a naval blockade around Cuba
  • Soviets back down and remove missiles

Vietnam War
  • France ruled Vietnam and treated the people badly
  • The revolt led by Ho Chi Minh
  • 1954 the Vietminh defeated the French in the
    North and split the country
  • Anti-communist government supported by the United
    States controlled the south

Vietnam War
  • Ngo Dinh Diem - the leader of South Vietnam was
  • A rebel group the Vietcong formed in the South
    to defeat Diem The communist North under Ho Chi
    Minh support the Vietcong.
  • Diem was assassinated

Vietnam War
  • Johnson becomes President and continues to
    support the new leader of South Vietnam
  • Wanted to stop the spread of communism from the
    North into the South
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President
    Johnson more military power to go to war

Vietnam War
  • 1965 the war escalates
  • U.S. unable to defeat the North Vietnamese and
    the Vietcong
  • 1. fighting style hit and run (guerilla)
  • 2. Vietcong refused to surrender
  • 3. Unable to win the support of the
    Vietnamese people

Vietnam War
  • 1968 Tet Offensive North Vietnamese launched a
    massive attack on several major cities in the
  • Even though the U.S and South Vietnamese forces
    were able to defend the areas it turned public
    against the war
  • Protests at home became even more vocal as people
    began to refuse to serve in the war

Anti-war protests 1968
  • Pres. Johnson decided not to run for re-election
  • Protests spread across college campuses
  • Kent State 4 demonstrators were killed
  • Richard Nixon is elected on the promise that he
    will end the war

Vietnam War
  • 1974 U.S. pulls out of South Vietnam
  • 1975 South Vietnam is over run by the communist

Opposition to the War
  • Some Americans objected to U.S. involvement in
  • Stressed repressive character of the South
    Vietnamese government
  • Objected to massive aerial bombings, to the use
    of napalm and defoliants and the killing of
    civilians by American troops
  • Deplored the heavy loss of life58,000 American
  • Resulting deficits forced the government to
    borrow huge sums of money, causing interest rates
    to soar and pushing prices higher.

Civil Rights Movement
  • 1948 President Truman ordered that all areas of
    the military and the federal government be
    desegregated as rapidly as possible
  • Marked a period of increased activity in civil

Civil Rights
  • Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    declared that separate but equal was
  • Ordered desegregation of all schools

Civil Rights
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks
  • Central High School Little Rock, Arkansas
    military used to enforce integration laws
  • Freedom Riders rode through out the South on
    buses to integrate segregated bus stops and
    lunch counters
  • MLK Jr. I Have A Dream speech

Civil Rights
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 outlaws most forms of
    discrimination in the United States
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated most
    barriers designed to limit African-American
  • Racism was a major problem
  • Violence and police brutality were common
  • MLK, Jr. assassinated

Civil Rights Movement
  • I Have a Dream speech 1963 supporting a
    non-violent approach to achieving civil rights.
  • Letter from a Birmingham Jail MLK answers
    criticism for his involvement in Alabama as an
    outsider states that he wants to fight
    injustice wherever it exists he was arrested
    for participating in a march.
  • Worked to unify groups in a common cause

Civil Rights
  • Southern Christian Leaderships Conference (SCLC)
    Led by MLK coalition of churches and
    Christian organizations who worked for a
    nonviolent answer to civil rights problems
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    a student civil rights movement that organized
    voter registration drives
  • SNCC later followed the Black Power movement
    sit ins protests some violence

Civil Rights
  • Jackie Robinson became the first African American
    to integrate baseball

Women in the 1960s
  • National Organization for Women Betty Frieden,
    a reform organization that battled for equal
    rights with men, employment opportunities, pay,
    ERA, divorce laws and legal abortion

The Warren Court
  • Miranda Decision expanded rights of the accused
  • Right to an attorney- gave even more rights
  • Very liberal court

Assassination of Pres. Kennedy
  • November 22, 1963
  • Many civil rights programs began under Kennedy
    had to be completed by L.B. Johnson

Lyndon Johnson
  • Program was called the Great Society
  • Started a war on poverty
  • Created Medicare and Medicaid
  • Spending on the Vietnam war limited the war on
  • Led to deficit spending and expanded the role of
    government in everyday life

1968 a very bad year
  • Johnson decides not to run for President because
    of unpopular war in Vietnam
  • Martin L. King, Jr. is assassinated
  • Robert Kennedy decides to run for President and
    is assassinated
  • Democratic National Convention sight of riots
    and protests

United Farm Workers Movement
  • Cesar Chavez organized Latino migrant workers
  • Wanted to improve working conditions and pay
  • Called for a nation wide boycott of grapes
  • Led to successful negotiations

  • Silent Spring Rachel Carson Marine biologist
    wrote about DDT and the food chain- and harming
    humans led to the banning of DDT
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established
    to regulate pollution of the environment and set
    standards for health and safety.

Conservative Movement in Politics
  • Richard Nixon tried to decrease the power of
    the government
  • Followed law and order policies to stop riots
    and protests

Richard M. Nixon
  • China visited in order to open trade talks and
    to improve relations
  • Watergate Scandal Nixon will be forced to
    resign because he was involved in an attempt to
    cover up the burglary at the Democratic National
  • He resigned to avoid impeachment

President Gerald R. Ford
  • Nixon resigns to avoid being impeached
  • Ford becomes President and gives Nixon a
    Presidential Pardon for any crimes he may have
  • The Watergate Scandal led to distrust of the

Supreme Court Decisions
  • Increase the rights of citizens
  • Roe V. Wade- allowed women to decide if they
    wanted an abortion

Affirmative Action giving special treatment to
  • Bakke decision reverse discrimination a young
    white man was denied admission to a medical
    school even though he had better scores than some
    minority applicants who had been admitted under
    affirmative action
  • Courts ruled that schools could not make
    decisions based on race
  • Affirmative action was a quota system that
    required colleges to admit a certain percentage
    of minorities even if they were not as qualified
    as white applicants

President Jimmy Carter
  • Troubled by crisis in the Middle East
  • Worked to bring peace to the region
  • Camp David Accords helped create a peace
    agreement between Israel and Egypt

Jimmy Carter Middle East
  • 1979 The Shah of Iran was overthrown by an
    Islamic leader (Ayatollah Khomeini)
  • Carter allowed the Shah to come to the United
    States for treatment of Cancer
  • Angry Iranians took 52 Americans hostage and held
    them for 444 days
  • Carter was unable to get them released

President Ronald Reagan
  • The hostages were freed minutes after Reagan took
    the oath of office.
  • Reagan tried to reduce the size of the government
  • Reagonomics policy that cutting taxes would
    motivate people to work, save, and invest.
  • The economy grew

President Ronald Reagan
  • End of the Cold War
  • The Soviet Union Collapsed because of economic
    problems former republics became independent
  • Russia and the United States agreed to decrease
    nuclear weapons by 75

President Ronald Reagan
  • The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal
    which was revealed in November 1986 as a result
    of earlier events during the Reagan
    administration. It began as an operation to
    increase U.S.-Iranian relations, wherein Israel
    would ship weapons to a moderate, politically
    influential group of Iranians opposed to the
    Ayatollah Khomeini the U.S. would reimburse
    Israel for those weapons and receive payment from
    Israel. The moderate Iranians agreed to do
    everything in their power to achieve the release
    of six U.S. hostages, who were being held by
    Hezbollah. The plan eventually deteriorated into
    an arms-for-hostages scheme, in which members of
    the executive branch sold weapons to Iran in
    exchange for the release of the American
    hostages, without the direct authorization of
    President Ronald Reagan.

Bill Clinton
  • North America Free Trade Agreement
  • It provided for free trade between United States,
    Mexico, and Canada.
  • The Republican Party controlled both houses of
    Congress and often opposed his programs
  • Impeached for lying about his association with a
    young female he was acquitted by the Senate

2000 Presidential Election
  • George W. Bush won the election based on the
    number of electoral votes even though Al Gore
    actually had more popular votes.
  • The election results was held up due disputed
    ballots in Florida the Supreme Court put an end
    to recounts
  • Later recounts showed that Bush did win Florida.

Sept. 11, 2001
  • Terrorists attach New York and Washington
  • Bush began waging war against terrorist networks
    in Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • The war was successful in eliminating the Taliban
    in Afghanistan.
  • Iraq has established a democratic government but
    has yet to end the fighting by insurgents.

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