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Effective Communication

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Title: Effective Communication


1
Effective Communication
2
Ground Rules
  • Please switch off your mobiles.
  • Make it an interactive session.
  • Brainstorming session

  • Above all
  • Lets agree to Disagree

3
Index
  • Effective Communication
  • Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
  • Facial Expression
  • Body Language
  • Listening Skills
  • Dressing Sense
  • Managing the conflict
  • 10 positive interactivity

4
Communication
  • Find Out what your Listener wants
  • Know what you want to say
  • Control Fear
  • Stop Talking and Listen
  • Think before you talk
  • Believe in your message
  • Repeat Major Points
  • Find Out what your Listener wants

5
  • Communication A Definition
  • Communication is the process of exchanging
    information by the use of words, letters,
    symbols, or nonverbal behavior.

6
Quicker problem solving
Improved stakeholder response
Stronger decision making
Effective Communication
Increased productivity
Enhanced professional image
Steadier work flow
Clearer promotional materials
Stronger business relationships
7
Types of communication
Non - Verbal
Verbal
8
  • Steps in the Communication Process
  • Sender
  • Message
  • Channel
  • Receiver
  • Feedback

9
Basics of Effective Communication
  • It matters not so much what you say as it does
    how you say it.
  • Your communication style is a SET of various
    behaviors and methods of relaying information
    that impact all facets of life.

10
Basics of Effective Communication
  • It matters not so much what you say as it does
    how you say it.
  • Your communication style is a SET of various
    behaviors and methods of relaying information
    that impact all facets of life.

11
Basics of Effective Communication
  • Learning all communication styles is important in
    order to avoid communicating in less effective
    ways and in order to recognize those styles in
    others so as to be able to deal with them.
  • People are not difficult. They only seem
    difficult to the extent that we do not have the
    skills to deal with what they bring to the table.
    It is our lack of knowledge that makes the
    situation difficult.

12
Passive, Aggressive, and Assertive Communication
  • Understanding Verbal Communication Styles

13
Passive Communication
  • Allowing our own rights to be violated by failing
    to express our honest feelings.
  • The goal of being a passive communicator is to
    avoid conflict no matter what.
  • Little risk involved very safe.
  • Little eye contact, often defers to others
    opinions, usually quiet tone, may suddenly
    explode after being passive too long.

14
Examples of Passive Communication
  • I dont know.
  • Whatever you think.
  • You have more experience than I. You decide.
  • Ill go with whatever the group decides.
  • I dont care. It doesnt matter to me.
  • Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes. . . NO!

15
Aggressive Communication
  • Protecting ones own rights at the expense of
    others rights no exceptions.
  • The goal of the aggressor is to win at all costs
    to be right.
  • Does not consider actions a risk because this
    person thinks they will always get their way. It
    is risky in terms of relationships
  • Eye contact is angry and intimidating lots of
    energy loud and belittling never defers to
    others, or at least does not admit to
    manipulative and controlling. Often uses
    violence or verbal abuse.

16
Examples of Aggressive Communication
  • I dont know why you cant see that this is the
    right way to do it.
  • Its going to be my way or not at all.
  • Youre just stupid if you think that will work.
  • Who cares what you feel. Were talking about
    making things work here.

17
Assertive Communication
  • Protecting your own rights without violating the
    rights of others.
  • The goal of the assertive person is to
    communicate with respect and to understand each
    other to find a solution to the problem.
  • Takes a risk with others in the short run, but in
    the long run relationships are much stronger.
  • Eye contact maintained listens and validates
    others confident and strong, yet also flexible
    objective and unemotional presents wishes
    clearly and respectfully.

18
Examples of Assertive Communication
  • So what youre saying is. . . .
  • I can see that this is important to you, and it
    is also important to me. Perhaps we can talk
    more respectfully and try to solve the problem.
  • I think. . . I feel. . . I believe that. . . .
  • I would appreciate it if you. . .
  • Let me understand your thoughts on this

19
Which is the Best Style?
  • All styles have their proper place and use.
  • Assertive communication is the healthiest.
  • Boundaries of all parties are respected.
  • Easier to problem-solve fewer emotional
    outbursts.
  • It requires skills and a philosophy change, as
    well as lots of practice and hard work.
  • When both parties do it, no one is hurt in any
    way and all parties win on some level.

20
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Nonverbal Communication in Organizations
21
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
The study of non-verbal communication examines
how messages are communicated through physical
behaviour, vocal cues and spatial relationships.
22
  • The total impact of a message breaks down like
    this
  • 7 percent verbal (words)
  • 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc)
  • 55 percent body movements
  • (mostly facial expressions)

Hello!!
23
Nonverbal Communication inOrganizations
  • ?? Environment
  • ?? Body placement
  • ?? Posture
  • ?? Gestures
  • ?? Facial expressions and movement
  • ?? Clothing, dress, appearance

24
  • Effective communication is the combined harmony
    of verbal and nonverbal actions.
  • Nonverbal communication consists of body
    movement, facial expressions and eye movement.

25
  • Major areas of nonverbal behaviors are
  • Eye contact
  • Facial expressions
  • Gestures

26
  • Posture and body orientation
  • Proximity
  • Para linguistics

27
EYE CONTACT
28
EYE CONTACT
  • The eyes can give clues to a persons
    thoughts.
  • When someone is excited, his pupils dilate to
    four times the normal size.
  • An angry or negative mood causes the pupils to
    contract.

29
EYE CONTACT
  • Good eye contact helps the audience develop the
    interest in the speaker.
  • Eye-contact helps regulate the flow of
    communication and reflects interest in others.

30
EYE CONTACT
  • Direct eye-contact conveys interest, warmth,
    credibility and concern.
  • Shifty eyes suggest dishonesty.
  • Downward gaze may be a sign of submissiveness or
    inferiority.

31
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
32
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  • You have 80 muscles in the face that can create
    more than 7,000 facial expressions.
  • The facial muscles produce the varying facial
    expressions that convey information about
    emotion, mood, and ideas.
  • Emotional expressions are one primary result of
    activity by the facial muscles.

33
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  • There are six categories of facial expressions
  • Happiness
  • Sadness
  • Anger
  • Disgust
  • Surprise
  • Fear

34
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
HAPPINESS Whoever is happy
will make others happy too. -Mark
Twain
35
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  • SADNESS
  • Sadness dulls the heart more than the grossest
    sin
  • -Author Unknown

36
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  • ANGER
  • Anger is one letter short of danger Author
    Unknown

37
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
DISGUST A disgusting expression on the face
is considered negative and should be avoided
in formal gatherings.
38
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  • SURPRISE
  • The eye-brows and the eyes
  • are most affected in an expression of surprise.

39
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
  • FEAR
  • There is nothing to fear, but fear itself.

40
GESTURES
  • Recognizing attitudes conveyed through Body
    Language
  • Right postures to adopt at the Work Place and
    postures to avoid
  • Pick up non-verbal signals from a customers body
    language
  • Facial expressions can enhance or detract verbal
    communication
  • Setting standards of Body Language to drive
    Customer Delight at the Public Office

41
GESTURES
  • Gestures communicate as effectively as words,
    sometimes even better.
  • Gestures support the verbal communication.
  • They sometimes detract from what you say.

42
GESTURES
  • There are some negative gestures which should be
    avoided
  • Pointing at people- It is perceived as
    accusatory.
  • Fiddling with your items-It gives the impression
    that you are nervous.
  • Dragging the feet-It implies lethargy.
  • Head Down- It suggests timidity.

43
GESTURES
  • Drooping shoulders- It implies weariness and
    lethargy.
  • Weak handshake-It implies meek and ineffectual
    personality.
  • Shifty eyes- It suggests nervousness.
  • Arms crossed on the chest- It is a defensive
    gesture.

44
GESTURES
  • Hands in pockets- Shows disrespect, and that you
    have something to hide.
  • Covering your mouth- It suggests you are lying.
  • Shaking feet or legs- It shows indifference and
    disinterest.

45
Avoid these hand gestures
46
Use these hand gestures
47
POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION
48
POSTURE
  • Body posture can be open or closed.
  • Interested people pay attention and lean
    forward.
  • Leaning backwards demonstrates aloofness or
    rejection.

49
POSTURE
  • A head held straight up signals a neutral
    attitude.
  • A head down is negative and judgmental.
  • A head tilted to the side indicates interest.

50
POSTURE
  • Some negative postures should be avoided
  • Rigid Body Posture-Anxious/ Uptight
  • Hunched Shoulders Lacks interest/ Feeling
    inferior
  • Crossed Arms-Protecting the body/ Negative
    Thoughts

51
What impression do the following people give you?
52
What impression do the following people give you?
53
PROXIMITY
Proximity is the distance people maintain
between themselves while talking.
54
PROXIMITY
  • DISTANCE ZONES
  • Intimate Zone- No more than18 inches apart
    (mother and baby)
  • Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet. (Casual
    and personal conversations).
  • Social Distance-4-12 feet (impersonal, business,
    social gatherings)
  •  Public Distance-More than 12 feet( Public
    speaking)

55
PROXIMITY
  • Space/Distance as an indicator of intimacy-The
    more we get to know each other the more we are
    permitted into each other's  personal space
  • Space/Distance as an indicator of
    status- Executives, presidents of colleges,
    government officials have large offices with big
    space... secretaries have small space

56
PARALINGUISTICS
  • Para linguistics are what accompany your words to
    make up for its true meaning.
  • Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect of
    communication.

57
PARALINGUISTICS
  • Components of Para linguistics are
  • Rate of speed- When a speaker speaks too fast, he
    is seen as more competent.
  • Pitch-Pitch should be changed in accordance with
    the context of spoken words.

58
PARALINGUISTICS
  • Volume- It refers to loudly we speak.Loud people
    are perceived as aggressive or over-bearing.
    Soft-spoken voices are perceived as timid or
    polite.
  • Fillers- Words like umhh ahaaa are used
    to gather thoughts.

59
Remember Its Fun to be Good !
60
Let Em Hear you are Listening
61
Listening
TWO AND ONE
Nature has intended us to LISTEN twice as much as
we speak!
62
  • Decide to be a better listener .
  • Remember - hearing is only physical , listening
    is intellectual.

63
There are four basic components to effective
listening
listening with empathy listening with
openness listening with awareness listening
actively
64
Listening with Empathy
Sometimes we do not listen to others because we
are not interested in what the other person is
saying we do not understand what the other person
is saying we do not agree with the other person
65
Listening with Empathy
To listen with empathy, try to identify what
needs the other person is trying to meet Ask
yourself these questions
What need is this persons emotion(s) coming from?
What danger is the person experiencing?
What is he or she asking for?
66
Listening with Empathy
Sometimes we do not listen because we do not want
to hear what is being said we feel threatened by
the content we fear being wrong we cannot believe
that an unlikable person has something to say
that is worth considering
67
Listening with Openness
To listen with openness, imagine you are a
detective trying to get all the facts. You are
trying to find the truth.
View the information from the perspective of the
other person.
Consider the other persons background, culture,
history, etc.
68
Listening with Awareness
  • There are two components to listening with
    awareness
  • being aware of conflicts between what is being
    said and your own knowledge base
  • being aware of conflicts between the content of
    the message and the body language of the speaker
    (tone, voice inflections, stance, etc.)
  • Recognizing that conflicts can be a tool for
    making the verbalized message more accurate.

69
Active Listening
Active listening means to be verbally involved
with the communication. Active listening helps us
to keep our minds focused on the
communication. The three elements of active
listening are paraphrasing clarifying feedback
70
More types of Listening
  • Informative Listening
  • Relationship Listening
  • Appreciative Listening
  • Critical Listening
  • Discriminative Listening

71
Barriers to listening
  • Hearing what you want to hear called selective
    listening
  • Thinking of what you are going to say next
  • Distractions such as co-workers, noise, side
    conversations etc.
  • Thinking about the previous customer call
  • Worrying about the next customer call or work in
    general
  • Stress
  • Getting involved emotionally (instead of
    logically)
  • Holding preconceived ideas about the callers
    inquiry
  • Thinking about personal issues
  • Boredom
  • Making assumptions rather than asking questions

72
Remember Its Fun to be Good !

73
LUNCH BREAK
74
Managing Conflict in Organizations
75
Management ?
76
What is Conflict?
  • Many definitions, but several common themes
  • Parties must perceive conflict
  • Opposition or incompatibility
  • Some form of interaction
  • Our definition A process that begins when one
    party perceives that another party has negatively
    affected, or is about to negatively affect,
    something that the first party cares about. The
    process usually involves one party or group
    working for its own interests and in opposition
    to the interests of the other group or individual.

77
Why Conflict Arises
Type A Personality
Vs.
Type B Personality
78
Type A Personality
  • Highly Competitive
  • Strong Personality
  • Restless when inactive
  • Seeks Promotion Punctual
  • Thrives on deadlines
  • Maybe jobs at once

79
Type B Personality
  • Works methodically
  • Rarely competitive
  • Enjoys leisure time
  • Does not anger easily
  • Does job well but doesnt need recognition
  • Easy-going

80
Aggressive People
  • Body language
  • Stiff and straight
  • Points, bangs tables to emphasize points
  • Folds arms across body
  • Verbal language
  • I want you to
  • You must
  • Do what I tell you!
  • Youre stupid!

Aggressive people are basically insecure.. Try
to avoid them.
81
Submissive people
  • Body Language
  • Avoids eye contact
  • Stooped posture
  • Speaks quietly
  • Fidgets
  • Verbal Language
  • Im sorry
  • Its all my fault
  • Oh dear

Submissive people have a great sense of
inferiority
82
Assertive People
  • Body language
  • Stands straight
  • Appears composed
  • Smiles
  • Maintains eye contact
  • Verbal language
  • Lets
  • How shall we do this?
  • I think What do you think?
  • I would like

83
What Are Some of the Common Types of Conflict
Found in Organizations Today?
84
Types of Conflict
  • Within an individual
  • Between two individuals
  • Within a team of individuals
  • Between two or more teams within an organization

85
Causes of Conflict
  • Conflict of aims- different goals
  • Conflict of ideas- different interpretations
  • Conflict of attitudes - different opinions
  • Conflict of behavior- different behaviors are
    unacceptable

86
Stages of Conflict
  • Conflict arises
  • Positions are stated and hardened
  • Actions, putting into action their chosen plan
  • Resolution???

87
Preventing Conflict
  • Assess positive and negative personality traits
    of people involved
  • Determine personality type
  • Aggressive
  • Submissive
  • Assertive
  • Assess if people are introvert or extroverts...

88
Preventing Conflict
  • Review past conflicts
  • Assess communication skills of those involved
  • Read body language of participants

89
Preventing Conflict
  • Try to reduce conflict
  • Realize that communication is colored by personal
    experience, beliefs, fear, prejudices
  • Try to be neutral
  • Plan the timing and place of the conversation
  • Realize that outside stress may add to
    confrontation
  • Eliminate/reduce external interruptions

90
Preventing Conflict
  • Manage the language used
  • Neutral vs. loaded words
  • Reduce technical language
  • Allow for cultural differences in language
  • Words may have different meanings for different
    peopleask them to elaborate

91
Personalities who cause conflict
  • Aggressor
  • Passive
  • Absentee
  • Error prone
  • Negative attitude
  • Chatterbox
  • Do nothing

92
Personalities who cause conflict
  • Unreliable
  • Time waster
  • Resentful person

93
Ways of Responding to Potential Conflict
High
Compete
Collaborate
Assertiveness of Response
Compromise
Avoid
Accommodate
Low
Low
High
Similarity of Goals
94

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