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Neurological Disorders

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NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS Dementia A degenerative syndrome characterized by deficits in memory, language, and mood. The most common form: Alzheimer s Disease Usually ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Neurological Disorders


1
Neurological Disorders
2
Dementia
  • A degenerative syndrome characterized by deficits
    in memory, language, and mood.
  • The most common form Alzheimers Disease
  • Usually slow onset
  • Characterized by three stages.

3
What happens in the brain?
  • Plagues Tangles
  • Signs Symptoms
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Psychosis, aggression, may have personality
    changes,
  • Eventually loss of judgment, unable to care for
    oneself

4
Alzheimers Association, 2011
5
Alzheimers Association, 2011
6
Alzheimers Association, 2011
7
Alzheimers Association, 2011
8
Those affected by Alzheimers
  • Caregiver burden is high
  • Who are the caregivers?
  • 17.5 billion hours of unpaid care to patients
    with Alzheimers (Alzheimers Association, 2013)
  • Estimated value of 216 billion
  • Medicare is the largest payer for paid care
    (hospitals, doctors, etc)

9
Treatment / Prevention
  • Medications available to help slow progression,
    treat some symptoms
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Vitamin E

10
  • Parkinsons Disease

11
Parkinsons Disease (PD)
  • Movement disorder that results from degeneration
    of nerve cells in basal ganglia.
  • Cause Unknown
  • Environmental factors may be key, especially
    undetected viruses

12
Signs Symptoms of PD
  • Tremor
  • Rigidity
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Mask-like facial expression

13
Surgical Treatment of PD
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Generates electrical activity
  • Not curative

14
Treatment / Prevention of PD
  • Medications
  • Physical therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Supportive care
  • Prevention??

15
  • Multiple Sclerosis

16
Multiple Sclerosis
  • Chronic, progression disorder of unknown origin.
  • Possible causes
  • Viruses, immunologic reaction to virus, bacteria,
    trauma, autoimmunity, and genetics.
  • Cause remains inconclusive

17
Signs Symptoms of MS
  • Muscle impairment
  • Loss of balance / poor coordination
  • Numbness / tingling
  • Difficulty speaking clearly
  • Double vision

18
Treatment Prevention of MS
  • Currently, no cure
  • Some therapies may help with symptoms
  • Physical Therapy
  • Muscle relaxants
  • Acupuncture
  • Connection to Vitamin D???

19
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

20
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  • AKA Lou Gehrigs Disease
  • Chronic, terminal, neurological disease
    characterized by progressive loss of motor
    neurons.
  • Cause unknown
  • Slightly more common in men

21
Symptoms of ALS
  • Early symptoms include
  • Tripping, dropping things, abnormal fatigue of
    arms/legs, slurred speech, muscle cramps
  • As the disease progresses
  • Difficulty in lifting, walking or using
    arms/hands, chewing, swallowing and eventually
    breathing become difficult
  • Only affects motor neurons

22
Treatment / Prevention of ALS
  • Early education to patient and family on how to
    care for patient.
  • Special attention to airway
  • Can it be prevented?
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