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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Autism Spectrum Disorders By Kirsten Moreland and Kelsey Burns Introduction What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders? What are the diagnostic criteria? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Autism Spectrum Disorders


1
Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • By Kirsten Moreland and Kelsey Burns

2
  • Introduction
  • What are the Autism Spectrum Disorders?
  • What are the diagnostic criteria?
  • What are the eligibility requirements for
    Special Education in Minnesota?

3
Autism Spectrum Disorders (Also known as
pervasive developmental disorders)
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise
    Specified (or atypical autism)
  • Rett Syndrome
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Asperger Syndrome
  • Autism

4
(No Transcript)
5
Definition
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Disorders are characterized by varying degrees of
    impairment in
  • (1) Communication skills
  • (2) Social interactions
  • (3) Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of
    behavior.

6
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise
Specified (or atypical autism)
  • Persons who display behaviors typical of autism
    but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later
    than three years of age

7
Rett Syndrome
  • Normal development for five months to four years,
    followed by regression and intellectual
    disabilities.
  • This is the only ASD that is more common in
    females than males and it is very rare.

8
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Normal development for at least 2 and up to 10
    years, followed by significant loss of skills
  • Much more prevalent in males.

9
Aspergers
  • Similar to mild autism but without significant
    impairments in cognition and language.

10
Autism
  • Definition from IDEA
  • A developmental disability affecting verbal and
    nonverbal communication and social interaction,
    generally evident before age 3, that affects a
    childs performance. Other characteristics often
    associated with autism are engagement in
    repetitive activities and stereotyped movements,
    resistance to environmental change or change in
    daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory
    experiences. The term does not apply if a childs
    educational performance is adversely affected
    primarily because the childe has serious
    emotional disturbance.

11
Focus on Autism
  • Characteristics
  • Prevalence
  • Causes
  • Facts
  • Signs of Autism
  • Simulations

12
Autism Characteristics
  • Impaired social interaction
  • Picked up/cuddled
  • Smile/laugh
  • Objects vs. people
  • Impaired communication
  • 50 thought to be mute
  • Robotic, parroting or reverse pronouns
  • Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior
  • Twirling, flapping of hands, rocking
  • Restricted range of interest

13
Autism Characteristics Continued
  • Impaired cognition
  • Remember location in space rather than concept
    comprehension
  • ie. shopping
  • Autistic savant splinter skills
  • ie. Rain Man
  • Abnormal Sensory Perceptions
  • Hyperresponsive or hyporresponsive
  • Synaesthesia the stimulation of one sensory or
    cognitive system results in the stimulation of
    another

14
Prevalence
Autism is the most prevalent of the ASDs and the
second most common is PDD-NOS which is a less
severe form and/or later onset.
Interactive Autism Network
15
Causes
  • Neurological
  • No single, known cause
  • Genetic Problems
  • Depending on the gene, a child may be more
    susceptible to the disorder
  • Can affect the way brain cells communicate
  • Can affect the severity of the symptoms
  • Environmental Problems
  • Causes many other health problems
  • Exploring whether or not trigger autism
  • ie. air pollutants and viral infections

16
Facts
  • Approximately 1 in 110 children are diagnosed
    with autism.
  • Over the last 30 to 40 years there has been great
    increase in the number of diagnosed cases.
  • Autism is the fastest-growing serious
    developmental disability in the U.S.
  • Sometimes students can be identified as LD or DCD
    when if fact they have autism.

17
More Facts
  • Autism is more prevalent in boys than girls
  • Approximately 31 or 41
  • Autism is more prevalent in siblings of those
    with ASD
  • Autism is more prevalent in those with other
    developmental disorders such as Fragile X
    syndrome, Developmental Cognitive Delayed, or
    Tuberculosis.

18
Early Signs of Autism
  • 6 months
  • No big smiles or warm, joyful expressions
  • 9 months
  • No back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles, etc
  • 12 months
  • No consistent response to his/her name
  • No babbling
  • No back and forth gestures, such as pointing
    showing, reaching, waving, or three-pronged gaze
  • 16 months
  • No words
  • 24 months
  • No two-word meaningful phrases (without imitation
    or repeating)

19
Narrator of Curious
  • The narrator of the book is Christopher Boone, a
    15 year-old boy with an undisclosed disorder.
  • Although never stated, Christopher appears to be
    a highly functioning autistic person.
  • Christopher also appears to have the qualities of
    a savant.

20
Asperger syndrome
  • Christopher may have this form of autism because
    displays many of the characteristics
  • He is advanced in areas of language and other
    intellectual abilities
  • He is physically clumsy and socially awkward

21
Resources
  • http//www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/pdf/V38N
    5_AutismSpectrumDisorders.pdf
  • http//education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/groups/Specia
    lEd/documents/Manual/000824.pdf
  • http//www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism/DS00348/DS
    ECTIONcauses
  • http//education.state.mn.us/mdeprod/groups/Specia
    lEd/documents/Publication/017210.pdf
  • http//www.positivelyautism.com/volume2issue10/sec
    tion5.html

22
Resources
  • Exceptional Learners by Daniel P. Hallahan, James
    M. Kauffman, Paige C. Pullen
  • MN Dept. of Education http//education.state.mn.us
    /MDE/Learning_Support/Special_Education/Categorica
    l_Disability_Information/Autism_Spectrum_Disorders
    /index.html
  • How to create an inclusive classroom
    http//www.child-autism-parent-cafe.com/autism-stu
    dents-in-inclusive-classrooms.html

23
Resources
  • Good resource to help identify autism
    http//www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/upload/
    autism_overview_2005.pdfpage3
  • http//www.autismspeaks.org/docs/family_services_d
    ocs/sk/Appendix.pdfpage91
  • Autism Speaks organization http//www.autismspeaks
    .org/whatisit/index.php
  • http//www.ehow.co.uk/list_7183564_autism-simulati
    on-activities.html
  • Promoting Social Interaction 4 strategies
    http//www.teachervision.fen.com/autism/teaching-m
    ethods/8193.html?detoured1
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