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The Cold War

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Cold War and Kennedy Bay of Pigs Invasion April 1961 Responding to perceived communist threats, JFK ordered the invasion An army of Cuban exiles, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The Cold War
2
Origins of the Cold War
  • THE KEY ISSUE the future of Eastern Europe
  • Soviets occupied Eastern European states that
    they freed from Nazi rule
  • After WWll ended, Stalin installed pro-Soviet
    governments throughout Eastern Europe
  • How do you think the United States felt about
    this?

3
Tensions increase
  • The United States suspected the Soviet Union of
    trying to dominate world affairs
  • The Soviet Union suspected the United States of
    trying to dominate world affairs

4
AHH! A COLD WAR!
  • The Cold War set the United States and Soviet
    Union against each other
  • The two nations never met in battle
  • There was still the threat of deadly conflict

5
The Berlin Airlift
  • The Cold War almost turned hot in Germany
  • Why do you think so?
  • The Allies agreed to temporarily divide Germany
    into four zones controlled by
  • Soviet Union, U.S., Great Britain, and France
  • Western powers wanted to unite their zones into
    West Germany
  • Stalin was not happy about this and decided to
    take action
  • He feared a united Germany would threaten the
    Soviet Union

6
Dividing Berlin/The Berlin Airlift
  • Germanys former capital city (Berlin) was in the
    boundaries of East Germany
  • The city was divided into four zones so each of
    the four nations controlled one
  • 1948- Stalin blocked access to Berlin
  • During the blockade, Truman ordered food, fuel,
    and supplies to be airlifted
  • In nearly one year, 270,000 U.S. and British
    flights carried supplies in
  • 1949-Stalin gave up blockade
  • Germany was divided into East Germany (communist)
    and West Germany (democratic)

7
Berlin, 1945
8
Containment
  • Definition policy to stop the spread of
    communism through military and non-military ways
  • The Truman Doctrine- promised aid to people
    fighting to maintain democracy
  • Marshall Plan- one of Trumans actions that would
    prevent communism through the revival of
    economies in Europe that were damaged during WWII
  • The plan offered 13 billion in aid and helped
    western and southern European countries rebuild

9
The Cold War on the Homefront
  • How did the fear of communism affect people in
    the U.S.?
  • Many people feared it would spread in the U.S.
  • Americans suspected of communism were put on
    trial
  • Alger Hiss former State Department official was
    accused of passing military information to the
    Soviet Union
  • He was jailed in 1950 for lying under oath

10
The Cold War on the Homefront
  • Americans on trial
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg members of the
    American Communist Party
  • Were accused of passing atomic secrets to the
    Russians
  • They were executed in 1953

11
Un-American Activities
  • Truman ordered 4 million government workers to
    undergo loyalty checks
  • They would go before a board that decided whether
    or not they could remain in their current
    position
  • Many were forced to resign
  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
  • Targeted people in the movie industry
  • Blacklisted people unofficial lists of suspected
    Communists

12
McCarthyism
  • Joseph McCarthy- member of the Republican Party
  • When he began speaking out and crusading against
    communism, fellow party members began speaking
    out against HIM.
  • In 1950, McCarthy said he had a list of 205 State
    Department officials who were members of the
    Communist Party

13
Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954)
  • Senate held nationally televised hearings
  • McCarthy accused the U.S. Army of coddling
    Communists
  • The Senate condemned McCarthy for his actions and
    eventually he faded from the public eye

14
The Cold War Around the World
  • Like President Truman, President Eisenhower
    continued the Cold War, but had a more aggressive
    stand against communism.
  • Policy known as brinkmanship
  • Going to the brink of war to combat communism

15
Arms Race
  • 1945 The United States developed and dropped
    the first atomic bombs on Japan
  • 1949- Americans learned the Soviet Union had
    produced an atomic bomb
  • used information stolen by Soviet spies
  • Arms race- competition between the United States
    and the Soviet Union to develop weapons with more
    destructive power
  • 1952- the U.S. built an H-Bomb
  • 1955- the Soviets tested their first H-Bomb
  • Fear from both sides led to the stockpiling of
    nuclear weapons

16
What does this cartoon mean?
17
Space Race
  • 1957- the two superpowers began a space race
  • Soviet Union launched Sputnik
  • The worlds first space satellite
  • American scientists were scrambling to catch up
  • The U.S. Congress set aside billions of dollars
    for space research

18
  • Sputnik being launched into space

19
The U-2 Incident
  • Eisenhower suggested easing the Cold War tensions
    by face-to-face talks with the Soviet Union
  • Two weeks before a scheduled meeting with Soviet
    Premier Nikita Krushchev, the Soviets shot down
    an American U-2 spy plane
  • Eisenhower denied that the plane was spying,
    until he learned that the pilot had been
    captured.
  • Krushchev demanded an apology, and Eisenhower
    refused. The talks collapsed.

20
Cold War and Kennedy
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion April 1961
  • Responding to perceived communist threats, JFK
    ordered the invasion
  • An army of Cuban exiles, trained by the U.S.
    invaded Cuba
  • They planned to overthrow Fidel Castro, Cubas
    Communist leader
  • Cuban troops easily crushed the U.S. invasion

21
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • October 1962
  • Fidel Castro and Nikita Krushchev believed the
    U.S. was planning another attack on Cuba
  • The U.S. learned that the Soviets were attempting
    to land nuclear missiles in Cuba
  • The missiles could reach U.S. cities within
    minutes
  • The Soviets agreed to remove the missiles and the
    U.S. promised not to invade Cuba

22
Cold War leads into Vietnam
  • With the fear and suspicion that came with the
    Cold War, the U.S. made greater efforts to
    contain communism in Asia
  • This was done by sending more money and military
    advisers into Vietnam

23
The American Dream
  • During the 1950s the American population grew by
    almost 30 million people the babyboomers!
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