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Human Body Systems

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Human Body Systems * * * * * * Key Ideas of Homeostasis How do the skeletal and muscular systems help the body maintain homeostasis? How does the integumentary system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Body Systems


1
Human Body Systems
2
Key Ideas of Homeostasis
  • How do the skeletal and muscular systems help the
    body maintain homeostasis?
  • How does the integumentary system help the body
    to maintain homeostasis?
  • How do the nervous and endocrine systems help the
    body to maintain homeostasis?
  • How do the digestive and excretory systems help
    the body maintain homeostasis?
  • How do the circulatory and respiratory systems
    help the body to maintain homeostasis?

3
Skeletal/Muscular Systems
  • These systems enable movement and provide support
    and protection for tissues and organs.
  • Skeletal system has 5 main functions
  • Support (give body shape and structure)
  • Protection (protect internal organs)
  • Movement (joints allow for motion)
  • Mineral storage (calcium, phosphorus)
  • Blood cell production (marrow)

4
How do Muscles Cause Bones to Move?
  • Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
  • Tendons are strips of very strong, flexible
    connective tissue.
  • Pairs of muscles cause bones to move- one pair
    pulls and one pair pulls the other way (when one
    contracts the other relaxes).

5
Three Main Kinds of Muscle Tissue
  • Skeletal- are voluntary, you can control them.
    They help move the body.
  • Smooth- involuntary, you cannot control them,
    found in blood vessels, digestive system,
    bladder.
  • Cardiac- involuntary, found in heart, you cannot
    control.

6
Integumentary System
  • Functions of the skin
  • Protection
  • Disease prevention
  • Temperature control
  • Waterproofing

7
Nervous System
  • Consists of two main parts
  • Central nervous system- Brain and spinal cord.
  • Peripheral Nervous system- axillary nerves (arms,
    legs).

8
The Neuron
  • Nerve cells are the largest in the body.

9
Types of Neurons
  • Motor- transmit messages from the CNS to muscles
    and other organs.
  • Sensory- transmit messages from the sensory
    organs to the CNS.

10
Endocrine System
  • Has five main functions
  • Regulate metabolism.
  • Maintain salt, water, and nutrient balance in the
    blood.
  • Control responses to stress.
  • Regulate growth, development, reproduction.
  • Produce hormones.

11
Digestive System
  • The process of breaking down foods into molecules
    that the body can use.
  • Uses both chemical and mechanical means.

12
Excretory System
  • The removal of metabolic wastes.
  • Metabolic wastes include water, salts, CO2,
    nitrogenous wastes.
  • Main organs are Kidneys, Ureters, and Bladder,
    and Lungs.

13
Respiratory System
  • The Respiratory System brings Oxygen into the
    body and and carries Carbon Dioxide out of the
    body.
  • The Lungs are the main organs of the Respiratory
    System.

14
Cardiovascular System
  • What Is the Cardiovascular System?The heart,
    blood vessels, and blood make up the
    cardiovascular system.The cardiovascular system
    carries nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and wastes
    through the body and distributes heat to maintain
    homeostasis.

15
Parts of the Circulatory System
  • Arteries- carry blood away from the heart.
  • Veins- carry blood to the heart.
  • Capillaries- exchanges gases and nutrients from
    vessels to cells.

16
The Immune System
  • Disease is caused by a disruption in a human body
    system that leads to a corresponding disruption
    in homeostasis.
  • Disease falls into two categories
  • Infectious, can be transmitted from one organism
    to another. Infectious diseases are caused by
    pathogens.
  • Non-infectious, cannot be transmitted from one
    organism to another.
  • Pathogens can spread disease by air, contact with
    contaminated objects, ingesting contaminated
    food, by contact with a vector.
  • A vector is an intermediate organism that
    transfers a pathogen from one organism to
    another.

17
  • We can avoid disease by practicing
  • Good hygiene
  • Living a healthy lifestyle
  • Eating completely cooked meat
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Exercising
  • Eating a balanced diet
  • Drinking plenty of water

18
How does the Immune System Work?
  • Key Concept The Immune System consists of
    Organs, Cells, and Molecules that fight
    infection.
  • Your body has organs, cells, and tissues that
    protect you from pathogens.
  • The body system that fights off infection is the
    Immune System.

19
Immunity
  • Bodily Defenses
  • Skin- is the bodies 1st line of defense.
  • Skin prevents pathogens from entering the body.
  • Oil/sweat make it difficult for pathogens to
    survive on the skins surface.
  • Pathogens enter the body through openings in the
    skin (cuts, scrapes), eyes, nose , mouth, and
    ears.
  • Tears, mucous, and tiny hairs help to trap and
    remove pathogens.
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