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Durum Wheat

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Durum Wheat Presented by Justin Salberg Origins Abyssinia Modern Day Ethiopia Archaeological Evidence Cultivated in Byzantine Egypt just before rise of Islam Arabs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Durum Wheat


1
Durum Wheat
  • Presented by Justin Salberg

2
Origins
  • Abyssinia
  • Modern Day Ethiopia
  • Archaeological Evidence
  • Cultivated in Byzantine Egypt just before rise of
    Islam
  • Arabs spread the crop
  • Mid-East
  • Genoese document about macaroni 1273

3
History
  • Domestication
  • 10-15k BCE
  • Difficult to track
  • TriaItalian
  • AletriaCatalan
  • ItriyaArabic
  • Al-fidawshMuslim
  • Fideo-Spanish
  • Fidelli-Italian
  • On the scene in 13th C
  • Pasta credit given to Roman gods or Chinese

4
Revolutionof a sorts
  • Durum wheat allowed cultivation of numerous
    marginal lands
  • Flexible
  • Semi-arid
  • Land used for grazing or occasional growing
  • Could now produce significant yields
  • Expansion of rural settlements
  • High energy food

5
Uses
  • Pasta, pasta, pasta
  • Base in Arab cooking
  • Gnocchi, soup, stuffings
  • Replaced some other wheat varieties for breads
  • Fine grind makes flat, round breads
  • Pilafs
  • Couscous

6
Why Durum?
  • Drought resistant
  • Can be stored for up to 60-80 years
  • Low water content
  • Germinability
  • 3-5 years 30 years under best conditions
  • Primarily used for human consumption
  • Little to no energy lost in protein conversion
  • Export crop
  • Though domestic markets have grown considerably
    since its introduction
  • Receives a specific premium price
  • Berlin Summit 2000-2006

7
Durum Wheat Today
  • Monsanto
  • 525 million dollars
  • Grown in
  • S Europe
  • N and S America
  • North Dakota!
  • North Africa
  • Former USSR
  • Genetic Engineering and Breeding
  • Improve energy and protein content
  • Eliminate disease vulnerability

8
Introduction to the United States
  • USDA researchers brought Durum back from Russia
  • Early 1800s
  • Most mills wouldnt accept it
  • USDA pushed hard
  • Controversy
  • Domestic preference for bread, but durum wasnt
    white flour
  • Bleaching
  • Harmful to humans?
  • Demand grew with WWI and WWII
  • Dropped after until the 1960s
  • Todays pasta market

9
Semolina
  • Semolina produces pasta
  • Coarsely ground durum
  • Grain size is best indicator

10
Pasta-Making
  • 1st C. AD
  • Apicius treatise on the art of cooking
  • Production of pasta for sale
  • 15th-16th C.
  • Primarily made in the home by artisans
  • 1933 First continuous pasta press
  • Pasta consumption has increased
  • Changed from occasional to everyday

11
Organic, Sustainableand Countertops?
  • Built-in drought resistance
  • Organic production and sales
  • Purcell Mountain Farms
  • Homegrown Harvest
  • Rustichella dAbruzzo
  • TorZo
  • Wheat straw
  • Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service
  • Co-ops
  • 501(c)3nonprofit, tax-exempt
  • Arizona Grain
  • Desert Durum

12
Issues
  • Pesticide treadmill
  • Pirimifos Methyle, Diazinon, Alachror, Carbaryl,
    Vinclozonil, Diclorvos, Permetrina, and Malathion
  • Monocropping
  • Fertilizer
  • Little use of organics
  • Soil Erosion

13
Questions or Comments?
  • Fun facts
  • October is National Pasta Month
  • In the 13th C. the Pope set quality standards for
    pasta
  • More than 600 different pasta shapes
  • One bushel of durum can produce enough pasta for
    one person to eat three times a week for 70 weeks
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