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International business styles

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Title: International business styles Author: Marina Last modified by: Marina Ostaric Created Date: 5/14/2006 9:10:31 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International business styles


1
International business styles
2
National culture is very important in determining
the business style
  • The characteristics of management often vary
    according to the particular culture, which can
    determine how managers are trained, how they lead
    people and how they approach their jobs
  • The amount of responsability of any individual
    in a company depends on the position that he or
    she occupies in its hierarchy
  • Managers, for example, are responsible for
    leading the people directly under them, who are
    called subordinates

3
In this process the authority is frequently
mentioned
  • The managers must use their authority, which is
    the right to take decisions and give orders
  • Managers often delegate authority. This means
    that employees at lower levels in the company
    hierarchy can use their initiative, that is make
    decisions without asking their manager.
  • However, these procedures vary from nation to
    nation. Each country has its own way of doing
    business which depends on the local mentality.

4
For example, the Australian business culture can
be described as follows
  • Appointments In Australia appointments are
    relatively easy to schedule at practically all
    organisational levels. Youll find that many
    executives will be pleasant, approachable, and
    willing to meet to discuss business.
  • You should be punctual, but you must understand
    that Australians sometimes have a casual attitude
    toward time. In some cases, if you are a few
    minutes late to a meeting, it will be overlooked.
    In other instances your late arrival may be
    perceived as careless.

5
  • On the other hand, if you find yourself waiting
    for your Australian partners to arrive, remain
    patient and accommodating.
  • If you are an employer, its not enough to insist
    that your Australian employees arrive on time
    you will have to give convincing evidence that
    their tardiness is harming the organisation.

6
  • Business dress Due to the size of Australia,
    climate varies greatly according to region.
    Business dress is conservative. Men wear a dark
    suit and tie during the summer the jacket can be
    removed. Suits, skirts and blouses, or dresses
    are standard for women. Business dress may be
    more informal in very tropical climates.
  • Some workplaces have a casual Friday policy
    where casual dress may be worn on Fridays.

7
  • Conversation Australians generally prefer direct
    eye contact. People who avoid eye contact are not
    perceived as trustworthy.
  • Australians tend to be enthusiastic
    conversationalists and debaters. The best policy,
    however, is to wait for your Australian
    companions to bring up a subject be prepared to
    hear very strong and often confrontational
    opinions.
  • Australians like to hear opinionated
    conversations so dont hesitate to express your
    views if they are sincere and informed.

8
  • It is common for Australians to make provocative
    statements during conversation- you are expected
    to respond with humour.
  • Your Australian companions will be quick to let
    you know if you say something that crosses the
    line (usually migration and aboriginal issues).
  • Australians like to criticise themselves, but
    they are not receptive to criticism from others.
  • Dont boast about yourself or your companys
    accomplishments. Australians prefer to judge your
    competence and abilities through your actions.

9
  • Lets make a deal Before a meeting proceeds,
    there is usually some small talk.
  • Speak plainly and expect what you say to be taken
    literally. In turn, interpret what is said to you
    in the same direct manner.
  • Australians are usually distrustful of authority
    and of people who think they are somehow better
    than others.
  • Australians generally dislike negotiating and
    aggressive sales techniques. Presentation should
    be straightforward, with an emphasis on both the
    positive and negative outcomes.

10
  • Keep your presentation simple and to the point,
    since excessive details will not be well
    received.
  • Australians are receptive to new ideas.
    Generally, they are analytical, conceptual
    thinkers. Empirical evidence and other facts are
    considered the most valid forms of proof.
  • The work environment tends to be collaborative,
    so decision-making is slow and protracted.
    Deadlines are the main source of anxiety in this
    culture.

11
In Canada they follow these rules
  • Appointments Punctuality should always be a
    priority. You are expected to be on time for all
    business related meetings. If you cannot prevent
    being late, a telephone call is appreciated. In
    general, it is acceptable to be 15 minutes late
    for an evening social engagement.
  • Mornings tend to be the preferred time for
    appointments. Business hours are generally 9 a.m.
    To 5 p.m. Monday through Friday. Longer hours are
    also common.

12
  • Business dress Canadians prefer comfortable,
    tasteful clothing which is also conservative in
    most cases. Your clothing does not necessarily
    have to be brand new or trendy. Wearing quality
    clothing that is old, but presentable, can be
    prefectly acceptable.
  • The standard for men is a suit and tie, for women
    business suits or dresses.
  • In rural areas and small towns, clothing tends to
    be more informal.
  • During their leisure time, Canadians dress
    casually (jeans, t-shirts, shorts...)

13
  • Canadians in general, do not wear scent in a
    business setting. Perfume, aftershave, and
    heavily scented personal care products as shampoo
    and hairspray should be avoided, or at least used
    sparingly. Its often believed that perfume is
    worn to cover up poor personal hygiene.
    Furthermore, the presence of scent can also be a
    health hazard to individuals with asthma, a
    relatively common condition in Canada.

14
  • Conversation First name or title? The best thing
    to do is to wait for your Canadian colleagues to
    invite you to move to a first name basis.
  • Be careful of name pronounciation. To show
    respect use a common professional title such as
    Dr. Or courtesy titles such as Mr., Ms., Miss.,..
    with the last name. If you are unsure of a
    womans marital status use Ms. (pronounced miz)
    followed by her last name.

15
  • Lets make a deal Canada is officially bilingual
    (English and French). In Quebec make sure that
    you provide a French translation for promotional
    material and documents. Write your business cards
    in both French and English business cards are
    usually exchanged during an initial greeting.
  • Canadians are very friendly and take a genuine
    interest in other countries. They are tolerant,
    calm and very practical. They stress ones
    ability and competitive behaviour.

16
  • While negotiating mantain good posture and air of
    formality. Your negotiation must lead to a direct
    action plan.
  • Even in business deals, a good sense of humour is
    always welcome.
  • Canadians dont have difficulty saying NO if they
    feel strongly against something.
  • Try not to bring up the subject of family and
    other personal affairs in the course of
    negotiatons.

17
France
  • Appointments and behaviour Punctuality is taken
    very casually in France, so being 10 minutes late
    is never considered disrespectful.
  • Always shake hands when meeting someone, as well
    as when leaving. French handshake is not as firm
    as in the United States.
  • The French have a great respect for privacy.
    Knock and wait before entering into a room. Do
    not drop in unannounced and always give notice
    before your arrival.

18
  • Business dress The French are very much aware of
    their appearance.
  • You will be expected to dress conservatively and
    invest in well-tailored clothing. Patterned
    fabrics and dark colours are most acceptable, but
    avoid bright colours.
  • French businessmen do not loosen their ties or
    take off their jackets in the office.
  • Women should also dress conservatively and avoid
    bright colours and too much flashy jewelery.

19
  • Conversation The French are extremely proud of
    their heritage and they often boast of their long
    history and their important roles in world
    affairs.
  • If you do not speak French, it is very important
    that you apologize for your lack of knowledge.
    However, most individuals in business speak
    English.
  • The French frequently interrupt each other
    because, for them, arguing is a form of
    entertainment. Eye contact is frequent and
    intense, and can often be intimidating to North
    Americans.

20
  • Lets make a deal The French usually choose any
    meal to conduct business, but lunch is best.
  • The atmosphere is often informal. However, they
    tend to be very precise when money or personal
    involvement are discussed. On these occasions
    they do not show excessive tolerance. Moreover, a
    streak of egoism is sometimes present in many
    business situations.

21
Germany
  • Appointments and behaviour Puctuality is a
    necessity in Germany. Arrive on time for any
    appointment, whether for business or social.
    Being late, even if it is only by a few minutes,
    is very insulting to a German executive.
  • Germans do not like surprises. Sudden changes in
    business transactions, even if they might improve
    the outcome, are not welcome.
  • German citizens do not need to be complimented.
    In Germany it is assumed that everything is
    satisfactory unless the person hears otherwise.

22
  • In business situations, shake hands at both the
    beginning and the end of a meeting. Be sure to
    look directly into the persons eyes while
    shaking hands.
  • Business is viewed as being very serious and
    Germans do not appreciate humour in a business
    context.
  • Germans are able to consume large quantities of
    beer in one evening, but public drunkenness is
    not acceptable. It is best to know your limits,
    especially in Bavaria where two litres of beer is
    an ordinary evening. Pace yourself and eat plenty
    of food.

23
  • Business dress It is very conservative. Men wear
    dark suits, solid, conservative ties, and white
    shirts. Women also dress conservatively, in dark
    suits and white blouses.
  • Chewing gum while talking to someone is
    considered rude.
  • Dont be surprised if occasionally you see a
    fashion statement with white socks being worn
    with a dark suit.

24
  • Conversation Germans love to talk on the
    telephone. While important business decisions are
    not made over the phone, expect many follow up
    calls or faxes.
  • Germans guard their private life, so do not phone
    a German executive at home without permission.
  • Titles are very important to Germans. Do your
    best to address people by their full, correct
    title, no matter how extraordinarily long. This
    is also true while addressing a letter.

25
  • Lets make a deal Germans are very serious and
    extremely precise in decision-making.
  • Everything concerning business must be previously
    established and checked. There is no room
    whatsoever for mistakes.

26
Italy
  • Appointments and behaviour Foreign business
    people should be punctual for business
    appointments, although the Italian executive may
    not be.
  • Time is money is not a common phrase in Italy.
  • Do not expect quick decisions or actions to take
    place, as the Italian bureaucracy and legal
    systems are rather slow.
  • It is common for everyone to speak simulteneously
    at Italian gatherings. This applies to business
    meetings as well as social events.

27
  • Business dress In the business world, good
    clothes are a signature of success.
  • Men should wear fashionable, high quality suits.
    Shirts may be colored or pin-striped, and they
    should be paired with an Italian designer suit.
  • Women dress in quiet, expensive elegance. Quality
    accessories such as shoes and leather goods will
    make a good impression with Italians.

28
  • Conversation Italians appear very lively in both
    private and business communication.
  • They interrupt each other while striving to make
    their point.
  • Fortunately, English is spoken by many
    businesspeople.
  • Avoid talking about religion, politics, and World
    War II.
  • At social gatherings, it is considered insulting
    to ask someone you have just met about their
    profession.

29
Japan
  • Appointments and behaviour If you are invited
    to a social event, punctuality is not expected.
    It is the custom to be fashionably late.
  • The Japanese tend to be rather direct in their
    questioning of foreigners. You may be asked
    personal questions such as how much money do you
    earn or how large is your house?
  • If you take your host out insist upon paying. The
    Japanese will refuse, but insist.
  • Do not openly display money. It is important to
    use an envelope to pass money.

30
  • Business dress Men should wear dark,
    conservative attire. Business suits are most
    suitable. Casual dress is never appropriate in a
    business setting.
  • Womens dress should be conservative with minimal
    accessories. Women should not wear pants in a
    business situation. Japanese men find it
    offensive.
  • Women should only wear low-heeled shoes to avoid
    towering over men.

31
  • Conversation The Japanese prefer not to use the
    word no. They may simply respond with a yes but
    clearly mean no.
  • The customary greeting is the bow.
  • However, some Japanese might greet you with a
    handshake, but frequently a weak one. Do not a
    weak handshake as an indication of character.
  • If you are greeted wit a bow, return with a bow
    as low as the one you received. How low your bow
    determines the status of the relationship between
    you and the other individual.

32
Prefixes I
  • The imperative

33
Exercise 1 Match the prefixes with the groups of
adjectives
  • Dis- il- im- in- ir-
    un-
  • ___ possible probable precise
  • ___ honest similar organised
  • ___ popular economical manageable
  • ___ legible legal logical
  • ___ complete expensive efficient
  • ___ regular relevant responsible

34
Exercise 2 Add prefixes to the following
adjectives
  • Likely
  • Literate
  • Resistible
  • Respectful
  • Frequent
  • Liberal
  • Polite
  • Awful
  • Mature
  • Rational
  • Proportionate
  • Helpful

35
Complete the following sentences with the
appropriate adjectives from exercise 1
  1. Her desk is so ________ that it is hard to find
    anything there.
  2. Their payments have become ______. We will have
    to find another supplier who will pay on time.
  3. We are spending too much money. This new
    procedure is highly ___________.
  4. His methods are ________. His trainees have
    little success in all the activities.
  5. I cannot read this note. It is completely
    ________.
  6. Your question is ________ for this situation. We
    must concentrate on concrete suggestions.

36
The imperative
  • It has the same form as the infinitive without
    to.
  • It is used to give orders or instructions
  • Fill in the form in block capitals.
  • Empty the contents into boiling water.
  • It is used to give strong advice
  • Avoid showing the soles of your feet in the
    Middle East.
  • If you want to be emphatic you can use do or
    always
  • Do learn a few words of the language.
  • Always familiarise yourself with the basics.
  • The negative is formed by using dont or never.
  • Dont appear too reserved.
  • Never cross your legs in the Middle East.

37
Complete the sentences below using the following
expressions, positive or negative
  • study, expect (2), increase, invest, assume,
    beware, be flexible, judge, leave
  • _____ attitudes like my way is the only way
    behind.
  • ______, be curious and fascinated instead.
  • ______ some time in preparing yourself for
    encounters with other business and cultural
    styles.
  • ______ your understanding of the countries and
    cultures you are visiting by attending
    cross-cultural seminars.
  • ______ the general protocol and etiquette of the
    country or countries you are visiting.
  • _______ delays, frequent changes in plans and
    cancellations.

38
  1. _____ to have easy access to your e-mail while on
    the road. In some cases it may be impossible to
    log on to your internet server remotely.
  2. _____ when negotiating prices.
  3. _____ that market or sales techniques that work
    in your country, work in others.
  4. ______ of drinking too much alcohol over a
    business lunch you might need to make important
    decisions.
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