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Christopher Columbus

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Life & Legacy Who Was Columbus? Christopher Columbus was born on Genoa, Italy between August 25th and October 31st, 1451 In one of his writings, Columbus states that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Christopher Columbus


1
Christopher Columbus
  • Life Legacy

2
Who Was Columbus?
  • Christopher Columbus was born on Genoa, Italy
    between August 25th and October 31st, 1451
  • In one of his writings, Columbus states that his
    first sea voyage took place when he was ten years
    old
  • In 1479, Columbus married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo
    and had a son named Diego

3
Who was Columbus?
  • Although he did not receive a great deal of
    formal schooling, he was very intelligent.
    Columbus learned Latin and Portguaguse. As well,
    he was very well informed about geography,
    astronomy, and history.

4
Columbus Plans a Trip
  • By 1485, Europeans had been journeying to Asia to
    trade for many years. However, political changes
    had now made their traditional route more
    difficult.
  • In 1485, Columbus presented a plan to John II,
    the King of Portugal. He proposed that the trip
    use three ships and one year to sail out into the
    Atlantic Ocean, search for a western route to the
    Orient, and return.

5
Columbus Plans a Trip
  • Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral
    of the Ocean", appointed governor of any and all
    lands he discovered. He also requested one-tenth
    of all revenue from those lands.
  • Initially, Queen Isabella of Spain agrees to
    Columbus proposal. However, she later changes
    her mind when members of her court convince her
    that some of the details of Columbus plan are
    incorrect.

6
Columbus Plans a Trip
  • The Queen is not dismissive of Columbus, however.
    She decides to pay him an annual salary and, in
    1489 she signs a letter ordering all cities and
    towns under their domain to provide him food and
    lodging at no cost.
  • The Spanish court and the Queen finally agree to
    finance Columbus trip in 1492.

7
Columbus Plans a Trip
  • According to the contract that Columbus made with
    Queen Isabella, if Columbus discovered any new
    islands or mainland, he would receive many high
    rewards.
  • In terms of power, he would be given the rank of
    Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Governor
    of all the new lands.

8
The First Journey Begins
  • On August 3rd, 1492, Columbus and his three ships
    left Spain. On October 12th, he landed on an
    island in what is now called The Bahamas
  • In his journal on the same day, Columbus wrote
    that the indigenous people that he encountered
    were peaceful and friendly. He also wrote that
    They ought to make good and skilled servants,
    for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to
    them I could conquer the whole of them with
    fifty men, and govern them as I pleased

9
The First Journey Continues
  • As part of this voyage, Columbus also went to
    what is now Cuba and Haiti. Before returning to
    Spain, Columbus also kidnapped some ten to
    twenty-five natives and took them back with him.
    Only seven or eight of the natives arrived in
    Spain alive

10
The Second Journey
  • Columbus left Spain on September 24th, 1493 to
    find new territories, with seventeen ships
    carrying supplies, and about twelve hundred men
    to colonize the region. The colonists included
    priests, farmers, and soldiers. This was part of
    a new policy not just "colonies of
    exploitation", but "colonies of settlement"
  • On this trip, Columbus travelled to Antigua,
    Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic,
    and Cuba

11
The Third Journey
  • Columbus third tip included journeys to Trinidad
    and Venezuela
  • Columbus also returned to Hispaniola, an island
    in the Caribbean. Many of the Spanish settlers of
    the new colony were discontented, having been
    misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful
    riches of the new world.
  • An entry in Columbus journal in September 1498
    reads, "From here one might send as many slaves
    as could be sold..." Since Columbus supported the
    enslavement of the Hispaniola natives for
    economic reasons, he ultimately refused to
    baptize them, as Catholic law forbade the
    enslavement of Christians

12
The Third Journey
  • Columbus had some of his crew hanged for
    disobeying him.
  • A number of returning settlers and sailors
    lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court,
    accusing him of gross mismanagement. On his
    return to Spain he was arrested for a period, but
    was later released.

13
Columbus is Arrested
14
The Fourth Journey
  • In October 1499, Columbus sends a letter to Spain
    requesting help with his governance of
    Hispaniola. A man named Francisco de Bobadilla
    arrives, but he is given more power than Columbus
    would have liked.
  • Shortly after his arrival, Bobadilla hears many
    stories of torture against Columbus.
  • Columbus returns to Spain in chains. He is in
    jail for six weeks, but is eventually freed by
    the Spanish Royal family. His wealth was also
    restored, and his fourth journey was financed.

15
The Fourth Journey
  • On this trip, Columbus spent two months exploring
    the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa
    Rica, before arriving in Panama on October 16th,
    1502.
  • Columbus ships were damaged in a storm, and he
    was stranded in Jamaica for a year before he was
    able to return to Spain.

16
Columbus Last Years
  • Columbus became very religious late in his life,
    and wrote many Catholic books
  • Later, he attempted to sue the Spanish crown for
    10 of the profits of trade with America. He was
    unsuccessful.
  • On 20 May 1506, at about age 55, Columbus died,
    fairly wealthy from the gold he had accumulated
    in Hispaniola.

17
The Legacy of Columbus
  • For much of history, Columbus was seen as the
    man who discovered America. However, in recent
    years, that idea has begun to change.

18
The Legacy of Columbus
  • For many years, Christopher Columbus was regarded
    as one of the great heroes of western history. He
    was touted as the New World's pivotal discoverer
    who subsequently brought civilization to its
    backward peoples. Whatever hardships and
    cruelties were inflicted upon the natives was
    generally thought to be insignificant in
    comparison with the benefits of European science
    and religion.

19
The Legacy of Columbus
  • Both American and European lives were changed in
    what is sometimes referred to as the Columbian
    Exchange. Europeans became acquainted with corn,
    chocolate, potatoes, tomatoes, and various
    peppers and spices. These imports vastly changed
    the diet in the Old World. Tobacco also began to
    grow in popularity in Europe, since it was more
    common due to importing from America.

20
The Legacy of Columbus
  • Life in the Americas was changed by the
    importation of chickens, goats, horses, oxen,
    cattle, donkeys, sheep, coffee, rice, bananas,
    sugarcane, wheat, and barley.
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