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SEJARAH FILSAFAT

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SEJARAH FILSAFAT Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH Departemen Gizi Kesehatan FKM UNAIR * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Sejarah Ilmu ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SEJARAH FILSAFAT


1
SEJARAH FILSAFAT
  • Trias Mahmudiono, S.KM, MPH
  • Departemen Gizi Kesehatan
  • FKM UNAIR

2
Sejarah Ilmu Pengetahuan
  • Pembagian periodisasi filsafat Barat ? zaman
    (Kuno, Abad Pertengahan, Modern, Kini)
  • Pembagian periodisasi filsafat Cina ? zaman
    (Kuno, Pembaruan, Neo-Konfusionisme, Modern)
  • Pembagian periodisasi filsafat India ? periode
    (Weda, Wiracarita, Sutra-Sutra, Skolastik)
  • Periode Filsafat Yunani ? sangat penting ?
    menjadi acuan
  • Pemikiran filsafat banyak dipengaruhi oleh
    lingkungan
  • Pd dasarnya filsafat (Barat, India, Cina) muncul
    ? sifat yg religius
  • Di Yunani (mitos), India (Weda, Hindu), Cina
    (confusius)
  • Barat mitos ? diganti rasio
  • India tidak pernah lepas induknya ? Agama Hindu

3
Historisitas
  • Sejarah filsafat barat dibagi menjadi tiga, yaitu
    zaman Yunani Kuno dengan ciri pemikirannya
    bersifat kosmosentris
  • Zaman Pertengahan dengan ciri pemikirannya yang
    bercorak teosentris
  • Zaman Modern dengan ciri pemikirannya yang
    bercorak antroposentris
  • Zaman Kontemporer dengan ciri pemikiran
    logosentris.

4
YUNANI - KUNO
ABAD TENGAH
ABAD MODERN
ABAD KONTEMPORER
6SM
3SM - 6M
14M
18M
19M
20M
14-15M
RASIONALISME EMPIRISME KRITISISME IDEALISME POSITI
VISME
FENOMENOLOGI STRUKTURALISME NEOPOSITIVISME
ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE
RENAISSANCE
AUFKLARUNG
MITOS
LOGOS
FILSAFAT
THEOLOGI
FAKTOR HEURISTIK
ILMU CABANG
BIOLOGI ASTRONOMI MATEMATIKA FISIKA KIMIA SOSIOLOG
I
KOMPUTER PARIWISATA DLL.
AGAMA FILSAFAT
FILSAFAT
5
YUNANI KUNO
MITOS ..... - 6SM LOGOS 3SM - 6M
6
FILSAFAT
Phylo menyenangi Sophia bijaksana
MITOLOGI
Dongeng, Takhayul
Pertanyaan timbul (ingin tahu)
DE-MITOLOGI
Dipikirkan (secara kritis)
LOGOS (ilmu)
7
Apakah ARCHE dari segala sesuatu yang ada ?
Thales (624 - 548 SM)
AIR
Anaximander (610 - 518 SM)
APEIRON
Anaximanes (590 - 518 SM)
UDARA
Phytagoras (580 - 500 SM)
BILANGAN
Demokritos (460 - 370 SM)
ATOM
8
SOCRATES (469 - 399SM)
Dialektika
PLATO (427 - 347 SM)
Rasionalisme
ARISTOTELES (384 - 322 SM)
Metafisika Logika Biologi
Empirisme
9
  • Abad 0 6 M
  • Periode Kelahiran Nabi Isa
  • Pertentangan Gereja
  • Filsafat mengalami kemunduran
  • Raja membatasi kebebasan berfikir
  • Abad 6 SM 0 M
  • Periode Filsafat Yunani
  • Ahli filsafatnya Thales
  • Menggunakan pola deduktif
  • Kemunculan ilmu sangat berkembang

10
ABAD PERTENGAHAN
ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE
DOGMA
DOGMA
DOGMA
DOGMA
DOGMA
DOGMA
DOGMA
ABAD KEGELAPAN BAGI ILMU PENGETAHUAN
DOGMA
DOGMA
11
PERMULAAN ABAD MODERN
LEONARDO DA VINCI COPERNICUS KEPLER GALILEO
GALILEI FRANCIS BACON
RENAISSANCE
14 - 15 MASEHI
AUFKLARUNG (PENCERAHAN)
VOLTAIRE JJ. ROUSSEAU MONTESQUIEU IMMANUEL KANT
18 MASEHI
12
AGAMA DAN FILSAFAT MULAI DI PISAHKAN AGAMA DI
DASARI KEYAKINAN (KEIMANAN) FILSAFAT DI DASARI
OLEH OLAH PIKIR (SEKULARISASI) RASIONALISME EMPI
RISME KRITISISME IDEALISME POSITIVISME
TUMBUH ILMU-ILMU CABANG (MENINGGALKAN
FILSAFAT) BIOLOGI ASTRONOMI MATEMATIKA FISIKA
KIMIA SOSIOLOGI
13
SKEMA HUBUNGAN FILSAFAT DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN
14
perkembangan
  • Abad 6 M ditandai dengan runtuhnya mitologi dan
    dongeng-dongeng.
  • Abad 6-16 M ditandai dengan kuatnya doktrin
    teologis atau anciella theologia. Filsafat
    digunakan untuk memperkuat keyakinan agama.
  • Abad 16 zaman modern yang ditandai dengan
    renaissans merebaknya ilmu pengetahuan.
  • Abad 20 atau zaman pasca renaissans ditandai
    dengan menguatnya pemikiran pasca modernis

15
Mythology
  • Aim of early Greek philosophers is to find
    natural rather than supernatural explanations for
    natural practices

16
Natural Philosophers
  • Nature of the physical world
  • Science
  • Thales 625BC 545BC Greek colony in Asia
    Minor first know philosopher everything from
    water single basic substance
  • Anaximander 610-546 BC all created things are
    limited that which comes before and after must
    be boundless - basic stuff could not be as
    ordinary as water
  • Anaximenes 570-526 BC source of all things
    must be air of vapour

17
Democritus
  • 460-370 BC
  • everything was built up of tiny invisible
    blocks (p. 43)?
  • Each block was eternal and immutable
  • firm and solid
  • not all the same different shapes and sizes
  • unlimited number
  • Called atoms, un-cuttable (p. 43)?

18
How accurate is Democritus theory to what we know
today?
  • Atoms theory still exists
  • P. 84 the lego horse Platos idea of the
    model plan World of ideas

19
Athens circa 450 BC
  • Cultural center of the Greek world. (p. 61)?
  • Focus changed from natural philosophy to the
    individual and the individuals place in
    society. (p. 62)?
  • Democracy evolved
  • Art of rhetoric saying things in a convincing
    manner. (p. 62)?

20
Prominent Philosophers
  • Sophist a wise and informed person (p. 62)
    man and his place in society (p. 62)
  • No absolute norms for what was right or wrong.
    (p. 63)?
  • Protogoras (485-410 BC) Man is the measure of
    all things (p. 62)?

21
Socrates
  • 470-399 BC
  • there are norms
  • wrote nothing down
  • greatest influence on western thinking
  • taught in the city squares
  • known to us through Platos writings
  • we must use our reason to grasp philosophical
    truths p. 65
  • feigned ignorance Socratic irony

22
Socrates
died because of his convictions
23
Plato
  • 428-347 BC
  • Pupil of Socrates
  • theory of ideas
  • Myth of the cave denies the reality of the
    natural world
  • We must become enlightened

24
Myth of the Cave
  • From The Republic
  • What we take in with our senses is not real, but
    rather a poor copy of it we see only shadows
    imprisoned by our senses the shadows are less
    real than the actual
  • Should take in the world intellectually
  • Ignorance is likened to imprisonment

25
Plato and Aristotle
26
Aristotle
  • 384-322 BC
  • student of Plato
  • Elemental theory fire, water, wind, earth
  • Rejected Plato's world of ideas
  • Senses are important
  • Women as inferior

27
Medieval/Baroque
  • Machiavelli 1469-1527 control populace
    politics, government - two books, The Prince is
    still used today in politics (Stalin really liked
    The Prince)?
  • Spinoza 1632-1677 - in God (one substance)
    tolerance and free thought Rationalist Mystic
  • Hobbes 1588-1679 materialist natural world
    political thinking - The Leviathan The value
    or worth of a man is, as of all things, his
    price.
  • Hume

28
THOMAS HOBBES1588-1679
  • Alam semesta, segala yang ada, bersifat
    korporeal, atau badani, yang memiliki dimensi
    besaran panjang, lebar, dan kedalaman
  • Yang ada hanyalah materi,
  • Setiap benda bergerak, termasuk manusia, adalah
    mesin
  • Proses mental merupakan gerakan materi yang ada
    dalam kepala manusia.
  • Hobbes terpesona oleh gerak, khususnya setelah
    mengunjungi Galileo.

29
  • Locke 1632-1704 father of empiricism and
    liberalism, education. All mankind is good and
    ought not to harm one another. No mans
    knowledge here can go beyond his experiences.
  • Hume 1711-1776 nothing is certain
    (complexity), empiricist, take actions because of
    morals
  • Leibniz 1646 1716 rationalist borrowed
    reality There is a reason why every fact is as
    it is and not otherwise. calculus (Leibniz or
    Newton)?

30
Existentialism/Modernism
  • Kierkegaard 1813-1855 father of
    existentialism - individual finds own identity a
    problem mystery of own existence
  • deBeauvoir - 1908-1986 French existentialist
    Sartre - feminism
  • Sartre 1905-1980 fate doesn't exist man is
    what he conceives himself to be Hell is other
    people.
  • Descartes 1596-1650 father of modern
    philosophy method of doubt - Cogito ergo sum -
    I think therefore I am.
  • Camus 1913-1960 French writer absurd that
    humans demand significance in an indifferent
    universe - Man is the only creature who refuses
    to be what he is.

31
Senses or Reason
  • Empiricists believe that we learn through our
    senses we learn based on observation, experience
    we are born with a clean slate (tabula rasa)?
  • Rationalists believe one has to have an
    understanding of ones self to learn Know
    thyself senses offer a limited world rely on
    truths, logic and intuition
  • Kant synthesized the two need reason and the
    senses to learn
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