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An Overview of the Livestock and Poultry Industries

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Title: An Overview of the Livestock and Poultry Industries


1
An Overview of the Livestock and Poultry
Industries
  • Chapter 2

2
Livestock Industry
  • Livestock commodities comprise 50 of the total
    agricultural cash receipts (ERS/USDA, 2005)
  • The five leading states in total cash receipts
    for agriculture are
  • California
  • Texas
  • Iowa
  • Nebraska
  • Illinois

3
Beef Industry
  • Cattle, including domestic water buffalo,
    contribute food, fiber, fuel to the 5.8 billion
    people of the world
  • In developed countries, cattle normally supply
    food
  • In developing countries beef is a secondary
    product as draft animal power and milk are the
    primary products

4
Top 5 Countries in Beef Production
  • Cattle Numbers
  • India
  • China
  • US
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Beef Production
  • US
  • Brazil
  • EU-25
  • China
  • Argentina

5
Beef Industry
  • Exports
  • Brazil 27.8
  • Australia 20.3
  • India 11.4
  • New Zealand 7.7
  • Argentina 7.1
  • Imports
  • US
  • Russian Federation
  • Japan
  • EU-25
  • Mexico

6
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7
Beef and Veal Consumption
Country Per capita consumption
Argentina 65.2
United States 42.9
Uruguay 39.3
Brazil 36.9
Australia 36.3
Sources USDA -FAS attache reports, official
statistics, and results of office research.
Population statistics from U.S. Census Bureau,
Population Division, International Programs
Center.
8
Beef Industry
  • Production of beef has increased recently with a
    reduction in cattle numbers
  • Average carcass wt increased
  • Increased number of cattle per feedlot
  • Reduction in market age
  • More cross-breeding
  • Cattle Production is made up of several segments
  • Seedstock producers
  • Cow-Calf
  • Stocker-Yearling
  • Feedlots
  • Packers
  • Retailers
  • Consumers

9
Beef Inventory
  • Cattle Inventory
  • Texas
  • Kansas
  • Nebraska
  • California
  • Oklahoma
  • Cattle on Feed
  • Texas
  • Nebraska
  • Kansas
  • Colorado
  • Iowa

10
Which country has had the biggest increase in
exports of beef in the last 5 years?
  • Brazil

11
Why are imports to Japan from the US lower than
previous years?
  • BSE, traceability to verify BSE controls, age
    verification, bone chips and political wrangling.

12
Which country has the most cattle numbers?Which
country produces the most beef?
  • India
  • United States

13
Pounds of beef produced has increased whereas
number of cattle has reduced. How has this
happened?
  • Average carcass weight has increased
  • Increased number of animals through feedlot
  • Reduction in market age
  • More cross-breeding

14
What states have the most cattle on feed?
  • Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Iowa

15
Dairy Industry
  • Milk products are produced and consumed in most
    countries of the world
  • Cows milk is the most common product but other
    species are used for milk production
  • Buffalo, goat, sheep, camel

16
World Dairy Cow Numbers and Milk Production
  • Production per cow
  • United States
  • Japan
  • Canada
  • EU-25
  • Australia
  • Cattle Numbers
  • India
  • EU-25
  • Brazil
  • Russian Federation
  • United States

17
World Milk Production
  • 1,000 Metric tons
  • EU-25 132,300
  • United States 82,582
  • India 39,450
  • China 33,800
  • Russia 32,200

18
Dairy Industry
  • Other products produced such as butter, cheese
    and dried milk products are more likely to be
    exported than fluid milk.

19
Dairy Exports by Country
20
Milk Products
  • Butter
  • India
  • EU-25
  • United States
  • New Zealand
  • Russia
  • Cheese
  • EU-25
  • United States
  • Brazil
  • Egypt
  • Argentina

21
Milk Products
  • Whole Milk Powder
  • China
  • New Zealand
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Non-fat Dry Milk
  • United States
  • India
  • New Zealand
  • Australia
  • Japan

22
US Dairy Industry
  • The average US dairy has approximately 100
    milking cows, 30 dry cows, 30 heifers and 25
    calves
  • Dairy producers market the milk through
    cooperatives
  • Nearly 60 of the US dairy herd is concentrated
    in large dairy farms
  • These large dairies represent 9 of the farms
    with milk cows, but are responsible for more than
    half of the milk production

23
US Dairy Production
State Production
1 California 37,564 mill lbs
2 Wisconsin 22,866 mill lbs
3 New York 12,078 mill lbs
4 Pennsylvania 10,503 mill lbs
5 Idaho 10,161 mill lbs
24
Which single country leads the world in fluid
milk production per cow?
  • United States

25
Which three countries export the most dairy
products?
  • Germany, New Zealand, France

26
Which three countries produce the most non-fat
dry milk?
  • United States, India, New Zealand

27
True or False Large dairies represent 9 of
cattle but produce greater than half of the milk
produced.
  • True

28
Horse Industry
  • Horses were domesticated about 5,000 years ago
  • Horses were the last animals to be domesticated.
  • Horses were first used as food, then for war,
    sports and draft purposes.
  • There were no horses in North America when
    Columbus arrived

29
Countries with the Largest Horse, Donkey and Mule
Numbers
Horses Donkeys Mules
1 China 1 China 1 China
2 Brazil 2 Ethiopia 2 Mexico
3 Mexico 3 Pakistan 3 Brazil
4 United States 4 Mexico 4 Columbia
5 Argentina 5 Egypt 5 Ethiopia
30
US Horse Industry
  • Number of horses in the US reduced drastically
    after World War I.
  • Increased use of motor-powered equipment took the
    place of horse power.
  • The US horse industry generates 25 billion in
    goods and services annually

31
States with the Largest Horse Numbers
  1. Texas
  2. California
  3. Florida
  4. Oklahoma
  5. Illinois

32
US Horse Industry
  • The horse industry directly produces goods and
    services of 25.3 billion and has a total impact
    of 112.1 billion on U.S. gross domestic product.
  • Racing, showing and recreation each contribute
    more than 25 to the total value of goods and
    services produced by the industry. 
  • The horse industry has a direct economic effect
    in the urban areas of 2.8 billion and employs
    45,800 FTE employees. In rural areas, the direct
    economic effect is 22.5 billion and employs
    292,700 FTE employees.

33
US Horse Industry
  • How Many People are Involved in the Industry?
  • 7.1 million Americans are involved in the
    industry as horse owners, service providers,
    employees and volunteers.
  • The horse industry is a diverse, broad-based
    activity with stakeholders including large
    numbers of recreational and show horse riders,
    and moderate-income track, show and stable
    employees and volunteers.

34
Number of Horses Participants by Activity
Activity No. of Horses No. of Participants
Racing 725,000 941,400
Showing 1,974,000 3,607,900
Recreation 2,970,000 4,346,100
Other 1,262,000 1,607,900
Total 6,931,000 7,062,500
Includes farm and ranch work, police work, rodeo
and polo The sum of participants by activity
does not equal the total number of participants
because individuals could be counted in more than
one activity.
35
Which country has the largest number of horses,
donkeys and mules?
  • China

36
What happened to the horse numbers in the US
after World War I? Why?
  • Reduced
  • Increased use of motor-powered equipment

37
Poultry Industry
  • Poultry applies to chickens, turkeys, geese,
    ducks, pigeons, peafowl, and guineas
  • Chickens, ducks and turkeys dominate the world
    poultry industry
  • Chickens originated in Southeast Asia
  • Darwin concluded that domestic chickens
    originated from Red Jungle Fowl

38
World Poultry Production
  • Chicken Production
  • United States
  • China
  • EU -25
  • Mexico
  • India
  • Egg Production
  • China
  • United States
  • Japan
  • Turkey Production
  • United States
  • EU-25
  • Brazil
  • Canada

39
Broiler Consumption
  • United Arab Emirates 60.3
  • United States 46.3
  • Kuwait 43.0
  • Hong Kong 38.8
  • Malaysia 38.3

40
US Poultry Industry
  • Income from the US Poultry industry exceeds 21
    billion
  • The US industry is primarily in the southeastern
    US
  • The US industry produces 6.9 billion total
    broilers
  • The modern mechanized poultry industry of the US
    emerged during the late 1950s

41
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42
US Poultry Industry
  • Egg Production
  • Ohio
  • California
  • Pennsylvania
  • Iowa
  • Indiana

43
US Poultry Industry
  • Poultry industry highly integrated
  • Many broiler and turkey producers are contracted
    by large companies to raise birds
  • 85 of the eggs marketed are from large
    commercial producers
  • Efficiency of production of chicken, turkey and
    eggs has increased in the last few years

44
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45
Which country leads the world in chicken and
turkey production? Consumption?
  • United States
  • United Arab Emirates

46
Which area of the United States has the largest
concentration of broiler production?
  • Southeast Georgia, Arkansas, Alabama,
    Mississippi, North Carolina

47
True or False The poultry industry is highly
integrated.
  • True

48
Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Sheep and goats both originated in Europe and the
    cooler portions of Asia.
  • Sheep are distinguished from goats by the absence
    of a beard, less odor and glands on all four
    feet.
  • Sheep and goats are important ruminants in
    temperate and tropical regions

49
Sheep and Goat Industry
  • Sheep and goats are better adapted than cattle to
    arid tropics
  • Goats graze browse (shrubs) and some forbs while
    cattle graze tall grasses and some forbs and
    sheep graze short grasses and some forbs.
  • More than 60 of the world sheep numbers are in
    temperate regions while 80 of the goats are in
    tropical or subtropical

50
Top 5 Countries in Sheep Production
  • Sheep Numbers
  • China
  • Australia
  • India
  • Iran
  • New Zealand
  • Sheep meat Production
  • China
  • EU- 25
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Iran

51
Top 5 Countries for Goat Production
  • Goat Numbers
  • China
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Nigeria
  • Meat Production
  • China
  • Pakistan
  • India
  • Nigeria
  • Bangladesh

52
US Sheep Industry
  • Sheep numbers reached a high in 1942 of 56
    million declining to approximately 7 million in
    1999
  • Cost of production offset increase in price per
    pound
  • Difference in raising techniques
  • Midwest and West Coast farm-flocks
  • Western States primarily range-flocks

53
Major Sheep Producing States
  1. Texas
  2. California
  3. Wyoming
  4. Colorado
  5. South Dakota

54
What is the difference between sheep and goats?
  • Sheep dont have beards, less odor and glands on
    all four feet.

55
What is the difference in grazing patterns for
cows and goats?
  • Goats graze browse and some forbs whereas cattle
    graze grasses and some forbs

56
Which three countries have the highest sheepmeat
production?
  • China, EU-25, Australia

57
Swine Industry
  • Swine are widely distributed throughout the
    world.
  • 50 of the world swine production occurs in China
  • Swine production in US is more productive on a
    per head basis

58
Top 5 Countries in Pork Production
  • Swine Numbers
  • China
  • US
  • Brazil
  • Germany
  • Poland
  • Pork Production
  • China
  • EU 25
  • US
  • Brazil
  • Russian Federation

59
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60
World Pork Consumption
  1. Hong Kong 65.3
  2. EU-25 43.9
  3. China 41.9
  4. Taiwan 41.3
  5. Romania 34.6

61
US Swine Industry
  • Swine production in the US is concentrated
    heavily in the corn Belt
  • This area produces most of the nations corn and
    soybeans
  • During the past 20 years the number of hog farms
    has significantly decreased.
  • The number of hogs raised per farm has increased.

62
US Swine Industry
  • Four primary types of swine operations
  • Feeder pig operations
  • Feeder pig to finishing operations
  • Farrow to Finish operations
  • Seedstock operations (including multiplier herds
    for breeding companies)

63
In what area of the US is pork production
concentrated?
  • Corn Belt

64
What are the four primary types of swine
operations
  1. Feeder pig
  2. Feeder to finish
  3. Farrow to finish
  4. Seedstock production

65
True or False? The US produces more than 50 of
the pork in the world.
  • False
  • China produces 50 of the world pork.

66
Which country has the largest pork consumption?
  • Hong Kong

67
Other Animal Industries
  • Aquaculture
  • Finfish
  • Crustaceans
  • Mollusks
  • Global fish production has expanded at such a
    large rate that the per-capita supply has nearly
    doubled
  • Aquaculture produces 26 of the worlds supply of
    food fish

68
Aquaculture Production as a Share of Total Marine
and Freshwater Fish Harvest, 1984-95
69
Share of Global Aquaculture Production
Country Share of Global Production
China 57
India 9
Japan 4
Indonesia 4
Thailand 3
United States 2
Philippines 2
Korea, Republic of 2
Other Countries 17
Source Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO), The State of World
Fisheries and Aquaculture, 1996 (FAO, Rome,
1997), p. 12.
70
Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (). Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (). Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (). Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (). Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (). Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (). Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs ().
Groups 1984 1989 1995 APR 84/89 APR 90/95 APR 84/95
Freshwater Fishes 3,557,718 6,855,331 12,727,038 14.0 12.0 12.3
Aquatic Plants 3,446,524 3,415,895 6,812,879 -0.2 15.8 6.4
Molluscs 1,997,002 2,943,729 5,087,068 8.1 11.4 8.9
Diadromous Fishes 680,903 932,071 1,388,539 6.5 4.0 6.7
Crustaceans 231,798 702,292 1,126,632 24.8 8.1 15.5
Marine Fishes 209,684 282,692 573,332 6.2 13.2 9.6
TOTAL 10,123,629 15,132,010 27,715,488 8.4 12.1 9.6

71
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72
US Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture in the United States exceeds 1.09
    billion
  • Catfish farming is the largest aquaculture
    activity in the US.
  • Mississippi produces about 70 of the US total.
  • Trout production is the second largest sector
    with Idaho accounting for 75 of the production
  • Third largest aquaculture sector in the U.S. is
    the crawfish industry
  • Louisiana produces 25-50 million pounds per year

73
US Aquaculture
  • One of the most attractive aspects of fish
    farming is the feed conversion rate 1.3 lb of
    feed per lb of gain
  • Advantages
  • Major market
  • US major grain producer
  • Disadvantages
  • Most farm raised fish are tropical
  • Labor costs higher
  • Regulations

74
Types of Aquaculture Production Systems
  • Pond culture extensive farming in small shallow
    ponds
  • Raceway culture Traditional farming of salmonids
    which readily acclimated to the cool waters of
    the temperate zones and high mountains.
  • Cage culture The salmonids have readily adapted
    to other intensive systems, particularly farming
    in floating cages. Rainbow trout adapted to
    saltwater are now cultured by such practices, and
    two species of Pacific salmon, the silver or coho
    and king or spring
  • Ocean ranching The oceanic waters of the
    Southern Ocean are rich in natural resources of
    planktonic organisms ideal for migratory
    salmonids.
  • Off-bottom and on-bottom culture of molluscs The
    majority of molluscs are produced off-bottom,
    suspended from floating rafts or longlines.
    Others are managed on tidal beds.

75
US Aquaculture
76
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77
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78
Alternative Species
  • Ostrich and Emu
  • Both relatively new to the U.S.
  • Deer Farming
  • many different species
  • red deer
  • wapiti (elk)
  • white tail
  • red fallow deer
  • Major market in by-products
  • Bison

79
What are the largest aquaculture activities in
the United States
  • Catfish
  • Trout
  • Crawfish

80
Which country has the largest production of
aquaculture?
  • China

81
What are the three types of aquaculture?
  • Finfish
  • Crustaceans
  • Mollusks

82
What is the largest production of aquaculture
species in the world?
  • Finfish

83
Which US states produce the most aquaculture?
  • Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama

84
What are some alternative livestock species?
  • Ostrich and Emu
  • Deer red deer, wapiti, white tail, red fallow
    deer
  • Bison
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