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CS3253 Management of Information Systems

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CS3253 Management of Information Systems Lecture 6 Managing Systems Development and Implementation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CS3253 Management of Information Systems


1
CS3253 Management of Information Systems
  • Lecture 6
  • Managing Systems Development and Implementation

2
Mid-term Quiz
3
CS3253 Management of Information SystemsRecall
from last lecture Managing threats
  • Threats
  • From Unintentional Occurrence
  • From Intentional Actions
  • Minimize Risks IS Security Control
  • Develop System Properly
  • Software Quality Control
  • Software Change Control
  • Control Access
  • Control Operations
  • Securitys 5 Pillars for E-Commerce
  • Problem Management
  • IS Auditing
  • Anticipate Problems
  • Business Continuity Planning
  • Disaster Recovery Planning

4
CS3253 Management of Information SystemsRecall
from last lecture Managing outsourcing
  • Benefits of IT Outsourcing
  • Types of IT Outsourcing
  • Shifts in Customer-Vendor Relationship
  • IT Outsourcing Management
  • Alignment with Business Objectives
  • IS Performance
  • Business Impact
  • Commercial Exploitation
  • Hidden Costs of IT Outsourcing
  • Different Costs Occur at different Stages of the
    Relationship
  • Reducing the Hidden Costs of IT Outsourcing

5
IS Management Framework
6
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • We want to run our business as though we are
    driving a car on the
  • highway. The car is fast and, especially, really
    maneuverable. Many cars
  • will follow us closely, all going very fast.
  • Then we want to turn, quickly and unpredictably,
    and cause a big wreck
  • behind us.
  • Then we want to speed up again, but not too much,
    so that other cars will
  • follow us closely again. Then we want to turn
    again and have another
  • wreck, and so on.
  • We need to remember that we cant get out too far
    ahead, or others will
  • see us turn too early.
  • -- Senior Manager, major software company

7
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Case 1 Netscape

8
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Case 2 Microsoft
  • Maintains control over the software development
    process, while allowing small teams to work
    independently
  • Synch and stabilize
  • The daily build a daily test to check whether
    the most recently debugged version of all the
    separate modules are still operating correctly

9
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Case 3 Yahoo! Store
  • Allows small businesses to create their own
    online store
  • No programming needed
  • The standardized store structure allows Yahoo! to
    provide store management information

10
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Period Development Methods/Tools
  • 1970s Structured systems analysis and design
  • Use of 3rd GLs, DBMSs, and project mgmt s/w
  • Programming by professionals only
  • Development of mainframe applications
  • Early 1980s Use of 4th GLs
  • Software prototyping
  • Late 1980s Use of CASE tools packaged s/w
  • Object-oriented development
  • Early and mid 1990s Client-server computing
  • Web-based Applications
  • Early 2000s Web Service

11
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Web Services
  • describes a standardized way of integrating
    Web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL
    and UDDI open standards over an Internet protocol
    backbone.
  • XML is used to tag the data
  • SOAP is used to transfer the data
  • WSDL is used for describing the services
    available
  • UDDI is used for listing what services are
    available.
  • Web services allow organizations to communicate
    data without intimate knowledge of each other's
    IT systems behind the firewall.

12
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • James Snell (2002). Automating business
    processes and transactions in Web services,
    http//www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/
    webservices/library/ws-autobp/
  • Example A Travel Agent
  • A Travel agent can develop a website for a
    individual or a corporate user to query and
    confirm a reservation of an itinerary using the
    web services of a hotel, airline, and a car
    rental company.

13
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Phases of
  • an Information
  • System

14
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Overview of Alternative Approaches for Building
  • Information Systems
  • traditional life cycle
  • prototype
  • application package
  • End-user development
  • Outsourcing / Application Service Providers

15
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsTraditional Systems Life Cycle -- Building
16
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsTraditional Systems Life Cycle --
Implementation
17
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsPrototyping
  • Throwaway prototype designed to be discarded
  • Useful for comparing alternatives
  • Evolutionary prototype designed to be adapted
    for permanent use
  • Should be built using the system tools that will
    be used for the final IS

18
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsPrototyping
19
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsApplication Packages
20
CS3253 Management of Information Systems
Managing Systems Development and Implementation
  • Application Features
  • flexibility
  • completeness
  • ease of use
  • documentation
  • Vendor Comparison
  • Financial strength
  • Commitment to product
  • Management Quality
  • Economic Comparison
  • Purchase price
  • Installation effort
  • Maintenance effort
  • Consulting charges
  • Conversion costs
  • Technical Features
  • h/w and s/w resources
  • database/file characteristics
  • interoperability
  • expandability

21
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • End-user Development

End-user computing tools Query
languages Graphics languages Report
generators Application generators High-level
languages and PC tools
Middle or Senior Management
Staff
Response in Minutes or Days
22
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Facilitating End-user Computing
  • Create Information Centers
  • Consultancy
  • Training
  • Co-opting champions, sponsors, and gatekeepers
  • Troubleshooting Roles
  • Institute Policy and Procedures

23
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • New Trend of Adopting OSS for System Development
    in Organizations
  • The term Open-Source Software (OSS) refers
  • to software for which the source code is open
    and available.
  • No one can claim ownership
  • and by sharing source codes, developers cooperate
    under a model of rigorous peer-review and joint
    force collaboration in debugging and enhancing
    the functionalities.
  • This leads to innovation and rapid development of
    software products.

24
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Different lines of OSS products
  • (1) Operating Systems Linux, FreeBSD
  • (2) Server Applications Apache, MySQL,
    Sendmail, Samba
  • (3) Desktop Applications Mozilla, OpenOffice,
    Evolution
  • (4) Development Tools Perl

25
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • OSS is gaining momentum

Posted by wss at 1213 PM on Mar 1, 2005 in Web
Server Survey
26
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Implication of OSS for System Development in
    Organizations
  • 1. Zero/low cost
  • 2. High uncertainty and risk for adopting
    organizations since maintenance and support of
    the software are no longer guaranteed (compared
    with proprietary software).
  • 3. Impact on peoples mindset. (The key formula
    for the coming age is this open good, closed
    bad. (Schwartz and Leyden 1997)).

27
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Deciding Which Combination of Methods to Use
  • Comparing advantages disadvantages
  • Combining system development approaches
  • Some alternatives
  • Use a prototype as part of the traditional life
    cycle
  • Use a small application package as a prototype
  • Adopt aspect of a traditional life cycle to
    purchasing an application package
  • Add a user development component to the
    traditional life cycle

28
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • How to improve legacy systems?
  • restructure inefficient code, spaghetti code
  • reengineer extract business logic from programs
    and data from files or database migrate to new
    platforms
  • refurbish adding extensions e.g., a webfront
  • rejuvenate add new functions to make the system
    more valuable
  • replace with purchased package or service
  • rewrite

29
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • When do information systems fail?
  • does not performed as expected (functionalities
    shortfall)
  • exceed budgets (cost overruns)
  • not operational at a certain time (time overrun)
  • failure to achieve anticipated benefits

30
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
Measures of Information System Success
High levels of system use
User satisfaction with system
Favorable attitudes about IS function
Achieve systems objectives
Financial payoff
31
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
User involvement and influence
Implementation Outcome
Management support
Design Costs Operations Data
Level of complexity/ risks
Management of implementation processes
32
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
  • Dimensions of Project Risk
  • Project structure
  • Project technology level
  • Project size
  • Tools for controlling risks
  • External integration tools
  • Internal integration tools
  • Formal planning and control tools
  • Overcome user resistance

33
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Development and
Implementation
Key to Ensuring Systems Quality - Systems
development methodology - Proper Resource
Allocation - Software metrics - Testing and
audits - Quality Tools - Object-oriented software
development - CASE (Computer Aided Software
Engineering) tools
34
CS3253 Management of Information
SystemsManaging Systems Implementation
  • Thinking Exercise
  • Should end users be allowed to create their own
    Web pages? Why or Why not?
  • Next Class
  • Business Applications Supporting Knowledge-Based
    Work
  • Read McNurlin Sprague Chapter 11-13
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