Hazards and Risks of Earthquakes and Volcanoes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hazards and Risks of Earthquakes and Volcanoes

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Title: Hazards and Risks of Earthquakes and Volcanoes


1
Hazards and Risks of Earthquakes and Volcanoes
  • Geology 112
  • Section 1 T/Th, 0900-1015
  • Section 2 T/Th, 1330-1445
  • Paula Jefferis, Lecturer

2
Contact information
  • Instructor Paula Jefferis
  • Office DH 419
  • Telephone 408-924-5016
  • Email paula.jefferis-nilsen_at_sjsu.edu

3
Welcome to the spring 2011 semester!
  • Wishing you success during the semester!
  • Regular attendance with active participation,
    understanding material, and completing
    assignments helps achieve this goal.
  • These classes are large so make a point of making
    a visit during office hours especially if the
    material is overwhelming

http//www.sjsu.edu/people/paula.jefferis-nilsen
4
Natural Disasters, Patrick Abbott
  • 7th edition ISBN 978-0-13-602007-3

Reading the entire chapter associated with topic
will be helpful to understanding material in
class.
5
Assignments and Percentage of Class
Assignment Percentage
Three exams 55
Oral report and essay 10
Term paper 15
Home or work evaluation 10
Field trip 10
6
Assignments and Due Dates
Assignment or exam Date
Exam 1 March 1st
Exam 2 April 14th
Exam 3 (last day of class) May 17th
Oral report and essay February 15 and 16
Term paper April 21st
Home evaluation May 5th
Pinnacles field trip Section 1 Saturday, March 12th Section 2 Saturday, March 18th
7
All written work must be submitted to
turnitin.com before class
  • Register and understand how the system works

Section 1 Id 3751962 Passwordearthquakes1 (case sensitive)
Section 2 Id 3751963 Password earthquakes2 (case sensitive)
8
Class organization
  • Introduction, formation of the Earth and plate
    tectonics
  • Volcanoes geology, hazards, mitigation and
    prediction
  • Earthquakes geology, seismology, hazards
  • Mitigation measures to reduce risk

9
Work load
  • Read appropriate pages in text
  • complete term paper, home analysis, exams on
    assigned dates
  • understand vocabulary and concepts
  • apply vocabulary and concepts to explain Earths
    processes
  • attend 1 Saturday field trip

10
Part I Earth Process
Physical map of the World
70 oceanic crust 30 continental crust
11
Tectonic map of the world
12
  • Cross-section of the Earth showing earth
    processes producing earthquakes and volcanoes.

13
Part II Volcanoes
  • Why are some volcanoes more destructive than
    others?
  • location
  • The Mt. St. Helens eruption, 1980

14
Volcanoes
  • Why do some volcanoes look different than others?
  • location
  • Mauna Loa, Hawaii

15
Volcanoes around the World
16
What type of hazards can you think of associated
with a volcanic eruption?
Hawaii
17
Volcanic Hazards
Pyroclastic flows
Ashfall
Lahars
Lava flow
18
Comparison of ash plumes
Mt. St Helens was a relatively small eruption
compared to prehistoric eruptions
19
Potential Risk
Proximity and understanding of the volcano
20
Monitoring
  • Scientists document any change in volcanic
    activity with technology.
  • Volcanic eruptions have been predicted

21
Part III Earthquakes
  • Where do earthquakes occur?
  • Why?

22
Why and where earthquakes and occur?
23
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24
Earthquakes Today
25
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26
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27
Why earthquakes occur release of energy
Acceleration or push when seismic waves reach the
Earths surface.
Ground shaking
28
Earthquakes are caused when the Earth moves along
faults
Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault zone 1860
1770 1751 last earthquakes
29
Population and shaking
Warmer colors equals higher population
concentrations
Stronger shaking is associated with population
concentrations
30
Structural failure
31
Structural failure
32
6,718,362 million people
33
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34
What type of hazards can you think of associated
with an earthquake?
Anchorage, 1964
Coalinga, 1983
Indonesia, 2005
35
Earthquake Hazards
Ground shaking
Liquefaction
Landslides
Ground Rupture
Tsunami
36
Earthquakes cannot be predicted
37
Preparedness
  • Retrofit structures known not to respond well in
    earthquakes.

38
Education
  • Local population understanding the potential
    hazard can reduce loss of life

Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country
39
Recovery
  • Federal, state and local agencies aid in the
    recovery of natural disasters.
  • Search and rescue volunteers
  • International help

One small airport in Haiti. Difficult to deliver
and distribute supplies.
40
Connection
  • Patterns and characteristics of earthquakes and
    volcanoes
  • The theory of plate tectonics helps explain this
    pattern
  • If people understand the possible hazards,
    preparation can help reduce the risk

41
Remember!
  • Read text
  • Attend class
  • Ask questions
  • Equals success in this class!
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