Red Lake River Farm to Stream Tile Drainage Study - Red Lake Watershed District - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Red Lake River Farm to Stream Tile Drainage Study - Red Lake Watershed District

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Red Lake River Farm to Stream Tile Drainage Study - Red Lake Watershed District Future Plans Questions? Corey Hanson coreyh_at_wiktel.com 218-681-5800 * Note that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Red Lake River Farm to Stream Tile Drainage Study - Red Lake Watershed District


1
Red Lake River Farm to Stream Tile Drainage
Study- Red Lake Watershed District
2
Project Background
  • Originally focused upon wild rice paddy drainage
    water quality
  • Interest from farmers, scientists, MPCA, others
  • Expanded to include conventional agriculture and
    flow monitoring
  • Financial support from the Northwest Minnesota
    Foundation and the Red River Watershed Management
    Board

3
Theories
  • Lower Suspended Solids
  • Lower Total Phosphorus
  • Higher Nitrates
  • Lower Peak Flows
  • Greater Total Volume of Flow

4
Water Quality Comparisons
  • Conventional Agriculture
  • Different types of tile outlets
  • Different areas within the Red Lake River
    Watershed
  • Tile Drainage vs. Surface Drainage vs. Natural
    Background WQ
  • Wild Rice Paddy Drainage
  • Different types of drainage systems

5
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7
Thief River Watershed
Marshall/Beltrami Co. Project Area
8
Marshall County Sites
Pumped Tile Outlet
Surface Drainage
Gravity Tile Outlets
9
Clearwater River Watershed
Red Lake Co. Project Area
Wild Rice Paddy Monitoring
10
Red Lake County Sites
Surface Drainage
Main Line Tile
11
Clearwater County (Wild Rice) Sites
Surface Drained
Tile with Internal Perimeter Ditches
Main Line Tile, no Perimeter Ditches
12
Tile Water Quality Findings Conventional
Agriculture
  • Very low turbidity
  • Almost always lt1 NTU (Drinking Water Standard)
  • Often similar to distilled water
  • Minimal Phosphorus and Total Suspended Solids
  • TP - interferences
  • Nitrates range from mid-teens to over 40 mg/L
  • Drinking Water Standard is 10 mg/L
  • Mud River ? 0.55 mg/L avg., 3.67 mg/L max
  • Hill River ? 0.56 mg/L avg., 1.84 mg/L max
  • RRV ecoregion min. impacted ? .20 mg/L
  • Good DO levels, but high conductivity

13
Tile Outlet Comparisons
  • Nitrate concentrations at the Marshall County
    pumped tile monitoring site were 1/2 as high as
    at the gravity tile site
  • TSS more measurable from pumped tile
  • Near minimum detection limit _at_ gravity tile sites
  • Red Lake Co. gravity tile had better water
    quality (average concentrations) than Marshall
    Co. gravity tile (Structure? Design?)

14
Tile Outlet Comparisons
Marshall Co. Gravity Tile
Red Lake Co. Gravity Tile
Marshall Co. Pumped Tile
Natural Background
15
Surface Drainage Water Quality
  • Not many samples in 2005, not many runoff events
    in the summer of 2006
  • Significantly higher turbidity levels vs. tile
    drainage sometimes extreme
  • Higher orthophosphorus
  • Higher total Kjeldahl nitrogen
  • Lower nitrate concentration

16
Surface Versus TileConventional Ag
AVERAGES Surface Tile
Total Phosphorus (mg/L) 0.87 .02
Total Suspended Solids (mg/L) 124.92 1.96
Nitrates (mg/L) 2.57 21.31
Total Nitrogen (mg/L) 5.61 22.36
Turbidity (NTU) 149.58 .71
17
Drainage vs. Natural Background Levels-
Comparable or Better -
  • Tile drainage
  • Turbidity
  • Total suspended solids
  • Total phosphorus and orthophosphorus
  • Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (Red Lake Co.)
  • Wild Rice Paddy Nitrates
  • Surface drainage
  • Dissolved oxygen (thats all)

18
Drainage vs. Natural Background Levels- Cause
for Concern -
  • Tile
  • Conventional Ag Nitrates
  • Total nitrogen concentration (and loss)
  • Conductivity
  • Surface drainage
  • Turbidity and TSS
  • Phosphorus
  • Total nitrogen, TKN, and nitrates
  • Conductivity

19
Wild Rice Paddy Water Quality Results
20
Wild Rice Paddy Water Quality Results
  • Main line tile had much cleaner water than the
    surface drained paddy and the tile-plus-sfc
    drained paddy

21
Wild Rice Paddy Water Quality Results
  • Simply having tile within a paddy is not enough
    to achieve WQ benefits
  • Eliminate internal surface drainage
  • Wild rice paddy sites had low nitrate levels
  • Wild rice main line tile ? Very clean.
  • Low nitrates too!
  • High conductivity and low DO are the only
    negatives

Sfc.
ML Tile
VS.
22
Wild Rice Main Line TileWinWin Solution
  • Incentives for the installation of main line tile
    in wild rice paddies could drastically improve
    water quality within the Clearwater River during
    the discharge months of Jul-Sept.
  • Benefits to Farmer
  • More even quality, maturity
  • Less ditch maintenance
  • Fewer ruts during harvest
  • More control over drainage
  • No topsoil loss
  • Ends of pattern tiles dont get plugged

23
Wild Rice Paddy Sfc. Drainage Impact on the
Clearwater River
24
Wild Rice Paddy Sfc. Drainage Impact on the
Clearwater River
25
Wild Rice Paddy Results Impact on Clearwater
River
26
Wild Rice Paddy Results Impact on Clearwater
River
  • August 3rd, 2006 Upstream, Downstream
  • Turbidity (NTU/FNU)
  • 0.3 up, 37 down ? Large Increase
  • Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)
  • 11.40 up, 9.51 down ? Decrease
  • Temperature (C)
  • 24.7 deg up, 26.84 deg down ? Increase
  • Conductivity (uS/cm)
  • 359 up, 701 down ? Nearly Doubled

27
FLOW
  • Accurate, continuous measurement of flow
  • Tile Drained Field
  • Capture Tile and Surface Flow
  • Surface Drained Field
  • Capture Surface Flow

28
Flow Comparison Theories Being Tested
  • Peak Flow Rate
  • Flow Volume

29
How is flow measured?
  • H flumes (surface drainage)
  • V-Notch Weir (tile)

30
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32
Peak Flows
33
More InformationMore Questions
  • More Years of High Quality Flow Data
  • Is tile drainage impacting the Hill River?
  • What is water quality like in other areas of the
    RRB?
  • What happens to the nitrates from tile once they
    enter a waterway?
  • What can be done to remove nitrates before they
    enter a waterway?
  • Wetlands?
  • Controlled Drainage?
  • What would happen during drought conditions?

34
Future Plans
  • Distribution of Completed Final Report and
    Brochure
  • Continue Red Lake County flow monitoring
  • Need to calculate total flow volumes
  • Collect samples during runoff events
  • Flow study report in 2009?
  • Presentations

35
Questions?
  • More information is available on the RLWD
    website
  • http//www.redlakewatershed.org/projects.html
    RLWFTSTile

Corey Hanson coreyh_at_wiktel.com 218-681-5800
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