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History Review through The Middle English Period

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History Review through The Middle English Period Michael Cheng National Chengchi University Kings of England NORMANS William I 1066-1087 William II 1087-1100 Henry I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History Review through The Middle English Period


1
History Review through The Middle English Period
  • Michael Cheng
  • National Chengchi University

2
Kings of England
  • NORMANS
  • William I 1066-1087
  • William II 1087-1100
  • Henry I 1100-1135
  • Stephen 1135-1154
  • Empress Matilda 1141
  • (Queen Maud)
  • PLANTAGENETS
  • Henry II 1154-1189
  • Richard I 1189-1199
  • John 1199-1216
  • Henry III 1216-1272
  • Edward I 1272-1307
  • Edward II 1307-1327
  • Edward III 1327-1377
  • Richard II 1377-1399

3
  • French is the prestige language
  • Used in government, literature, and by the
    nobility
  • The kings all spent time in Normandy and married
    Norman wives
  • French was their first language

4
Stephen 1135-1154 vs. Empress Matilda 1141
  • Henry I son died in a shipwreck, so he settled on
    passing the crown to his daughter.
  • Matilda was already a widow, and remarried to the
    young French Count of Anjou.
  • Many barons rejected her and supported Henrys
    nephew Stephen instead.
  • Civil war ensued until a compromise was reached
    Stephen would remain king, but his heir would be
    Matildas child.

5
History Review Henry II 1154-1189
  • Henry marries Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152
  • He becomes King Henry II of England two years
    later.
  • Henry grew up in France and spent most of his
    time there while he was king.

6
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8
From H. Littlefield, 2006
9
From H. Littlefield, 2006
10
From H. Littlefield, 2006
11
From H. Littlefield, 2006
12
From H. Littlefield, 2006
13
From H. Littlefield, 2006
14
From H. Littlefield, 2006
15
From H. Littlefield, 2006
16
History Review Richard I 1189-1199
  • Left for a crusade in 1189
  • Imprisoned on his way home in 1192
  • Did not return until 1194
  • John lost Normandy while Richard was away.
  • Richard waged war on France. Died from an arrow
    wound.

17
History Review John 1199-1216
  • Called John Lackland and John Softsword
  • Arthur, the son of his older brother contested
    his right to the throne

18
History Review John 1199-1216
  • Brittany, Maine, and Anjou declared for Arthur
  • Arthur was supported by Philip II, the King of
    France
  • Philip switches his support to John after John
    swears vassalage to Philip

19
History Review John 1199-1216
  • 1200 John meets 12(14?) year old Isabelle
    d'Angoulême, the Helen of the middle ages.
  • John annuls his marriage, Isabelle breaks her
    engagement, and the two marry
  • Her betrothed complains to the king of France.
  • Philip summons his vassal to the French court.
    John ignores the summons
  • Philip seizes Normandy

20
Loss of English territory in France
  • 1204/5 Philip seizes land of French barons living
    in England. John seizes the land of English
    barons living in France. Nobles must choose which
    side to pledge allegiance to.

21
History Review John 1199-1216
  • John taxes the people to wage war against France
  • Upset barons rebel (First Barons War) and force
    John to sign the Magna Carta

22
History Review John 1199-1216
  • Loss of Normandy separates England from the
    continent and the English language grows in
    importance.
  • English nobles no longer have a reason to
    consider themselves to also be French.

23
History Review Henry III 1216-1272
  • 9 years old at start of reign
  • 1233 dismisses English advisors
  • 1236 marries Eleanor of Provence
  • Brought in many French advisors, who are hated by
    the English nobles.

24
History Review Henry III 1216-1272
  • Barons revolt against Henry
  • 1258-1265 Second Barons War
  • 1258 Provisions of Oxford set up a council of 24
    men to oversee the appointments of the king. This
    decree was published in Latin, French, and
    English.
  • Nobles no longer learning French natively. About
    1250 Walter of Bibbesworth writes a treatise to
    teach noble children French.

25
History Review Edward I 1272-1307
  • English grows in importance to the nobles
  • 1295 to rally support for his war against France,
    Edward addressed parliament and said that the
    King of France wishes to wipe out the English
    tongue

26
History Review Edward II 1307-1327
  • By the end of the 13th century, monasteries at
    Canterbury and Westminster need to require that
    their students use French
  • Oxford U requires its students to know French and
    English

27
Historical Map of France in 1314 - Prior to the
Hundred Years' War
28
History Review Edward III 1327-1377
  • 1337 The Hundred Years War against France begins
  • English victories
  • 1346 Crecy
  • 1356 Poiters
  • 1415 Agincourt ( lead by Henry V)

29
  • Historical Map of France in 1360 - After the
    First English Invasion

30
History Review Edward III 1327-1377
  • War with France decreases commercial contact with
    France, lessening the need to know French
  • Feelings of nationalism promote the use of
    English among the people
  • 1332 Parliament decrees nobles should teach their
    children French

31
History Review Edward III 1327-1377
  • 1356 Mayor and Aldermen of London order court
    proceeding to be done in English
  • 1362 Chancellor opens Parliament in English
  • 1344-1400 Chaucer

32
History Review Edward III 1327-1377
  • 1348-1350 The Black Plague
  • 30 of population died causing a labor shortage
  • 1351 Statute of Laborers
  • You could not leave your lord
  • You could not be paid more

33
History Review Richard II 1377-1399
  • 1381 Peasants revolt Wat Tylers rebellion
  • Peasant class becomes more important
  • English rises in importance
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