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Development of Early Civilizations (aka

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Development of Early Civilizations (aka cradles ) Mesopotamia, Nile, Yellow, and Indus (& Olmec) What are characteristics of a civilization? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Development of Early Civilizations (aka


1
Development of Early Civilizations (aka cradles)
  • Mesopotamia, Nile, Yellow, and Indus ( Olmec)

2
What are characteristics of a civilization?
  • A form of written language
  • Social stability with their organization
  • Access to resources natural/ manmade
  • Usually has a form of religion
  • Arts and innovation- intellectual stimulate

3
Civilization Characteristics (contd)
  • Distinction between classes and genders
  • Distinction between civilized and uncivilized
  • Greater impact on the environment
  • Legal systems

4
When did they come about?
  • Many characteristics of civilizations by 6,000 or
    5,000 BCE
  • Origins of civilization around 3,500 BCE until
    about 1,000 BCE

5
Where did they occur?
  • In river valleys
  • Mesopotamia, Nile, Indus, Yellow, ( Olmec)
  • Covered only a tiny portion

6
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11
Was development of civilization a good thing?
  • Not always
  • Many non-civilized societies have more
    regulations
  • Nomadic peoples contributed greatly to world
    history

12
What does civilization mean and is it dependent
on anything?
  • Derived from civitas meaning city
  • Most civilizations depend on the existence of
    significant cities.why?

13
Why settle in the river valley?
  • Lacks adequate rainfall, natural resources,
    constant threat of droughts
  • Fertile soil
  • Tremendous results with irrigation

14
Why were they able to come about?
  • Built on changes in technology
  • Agriculture
  • New civilizations continued to be founded in
    northern Europe, as late as 1500 BCE

15
Use of metals
  • First metal used- gold
  • Next, copper
  • Humans learn to alloy copper with different
    metals
  • Next major step is iron

16
What is so important about irrigation?
  • Makes civilization work
  • Increase in food increase in population

17
Were all agricultural societies stationary?
  • No- some used idea of slash and burn agriculture
  • Herding peoples moved in tribal bands

18
Was new land always available nearby? Were there
advantages to staying put?
  • No, so most agricultural people didnt move
  • Yes, some advantages
  • Irrigation key incentive to stability

19
What are some commonalities among early
civilizations?
  • Cities
  • Writing
  • Formal states
  • Trade
  • Mutual relationships

20
Development of Writing
  • Starts with oral tradition
  • Almost all major alphabets in world derived from
    the writing forms pioneered in the river valleys

21
Cuneiform
22
Hieroglyphics
23
Writing contd
  • Most civilizations developed writing
  • First form- cuneiform (writing based on
    wedge-like characters) in the Middle East 3500
    BCE
  • http//www.upennmuseum.com/cuneiform.cgi
  • Another form of writing was Hieroglyphics
  • http//www.quizland.com/hiero.htm
  • Societies that used writing could organize more
    elaborate political structures

24
Writing contd
  • Could tax more efficiently and make contracts and
    treaties
  • Generate a more explicit intellectual climate

25
Firmer Class or Caste Divisions
  • Promotes greater separation
  • Greater inequality between men and women
  • More fully patriarchal structures emerged

26
Did development of civilizations continue the
process of technological change and political
organization?
  • Yes
  • Civilizations generated the largest populations
  • Most elaborate artistic and intellectual forms
  • Civilization increased human impact on the
    environment

27
Decline/ Connections
  • Despite accomplishments, most in decline by 1,000
    BCE
  • Connections between the first civilization and
    subsequent forms in several river valley
    civilizations

28
Conclusion
  • After 1,000 BCE development and spread of
    civilization begin
  • Many accomplishments had a lasting impact

29
Conclusion contd
  • Others- invention of the wheel, taming of horses,
    the creation of usable alphabets, writing
    implements, the production of key mathematical
    concepts such as square roots, the development of
    well- organized monarchies and bureaucracies,
  • and the invention of functional
  • calendars and other divisions of time

30
Conclusion contd
  • One final result- a pattern of division among the
    worlds peoples
  • Small groups spread to almost every corner of the
    world
  • Rise of agriculture created new links and trade
    soon entered the picture
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