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Osmoregulation and Excretion

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Osmoregulation and Excretion Water Balance and Waste Disposal Excretory Systems Water Balance Osmoconformers-isoosmotic with their environment, most marine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Osmoregulation and Excretion


1
Osmoregulation and Excretion
  • Water Balance and Waste Disposal
  • Excretory Systems

2
Water Balance
  • Osmoconformers-isoosmotic with their environment,
    most marine invertebrates
  • Osmoregulators-regulate internal osmolarity by
    releasing or taking in water, many marine
    animals, all freshwater animals, terrestrials
    animals, and humans

3
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4
Marine vs Freshwater Fish
  • Marine fish remove salt through specialized
    glands and the kidneys, also drink large amounts
    of seawater
  • Freshwater fish excrete large amounts of very
    dilute urine, use gills to take in Na and Cl-
    ions

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8
Excretory Systems
  • Functional similarities of all excretory systems
  • Filtration of body fluids
  • modification of that filtrate by selective
    secretion of solutes and selective reabsorption
    of some of those solutes

9
Functional Unit of the Excretory System of
Mammals-Nephron
  • Kidney made of nephrons
  • nephron-single long tubule and associated
    capillaries
  • three processes occur filtration, secretion, and
    reabsorption

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11
Filtration
  • Blood pressure within the glomerulus forces
  • filtrate contains a mixture of glucose, salts,
    vitamins, nitrogenous wastes, and other small
    molecules

12
Secretion
  • Plasma solutes are added to the filtrate
  • highly selective, involves passive and active
    transport
  • example H ions helps maintain pH of body fluids

13
Reabsorption
  • Selective transport of filtrate substances back
    into the interstitial fluid
  • reclaims small essential molecules
  • nearly all sugar, vitamins, organic nutrients
    reabsorbed, also some water

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17
Regulation of Kidney Function
  • ADH-antidiuretic hormone, enhances fluid
    retention by increasing the water permeability of
    the tubules, produced by hypothalamus, but
    released from the posterior pituitary
  • RAAS-renin-angioltensin-aldoserone system
    cooperates with ADH and is opposed by ANF

18
Videos and Websites
  • http//www.biologymad.com/resources/kidney.swf

19
Excretory Products
  • Ammonia is a byproduct of amino acid respiration
    it must be removed or converted to a less toxic
    form
  • Ammonia is excreted through the gills and body
    surfaces of most marine and freshwater animals.
  • Uric Acid- insoluble non toxic form produced by
    birds, reptiles, and other terrestrial forms
  • Urea-ammonia is combined with CO2 and diluted in
    water to form urine, produced by some terrestrial
    animals

20
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